PhDs Awarded – KIIT University News & Events KIIT Deemed to be University News Thu, 06 Jul 2023 17:12:06 +0000 en-GB hourly 1 PhDs Awarded – KIIT University News & Events 32 32 School of Biotechnology (Jan – Mar 2023) Tue, 25 Apr 2023 17:11:00 +0000 KIIT School Of Biotechnology

JOURNAL PAPERS: Butti, R., Kapse, P., Bhadauriya, G., Ahmad, S., Chaubal, R., Parab, P., Kadam, R., Mahapatra, S. S., Shet, T., Dutt, A., Gupta, S., & Kundu, G. C. (2023). Development and characterization of a patient‑derived orthotopic xenograft of therapy‑resistant breast cancer. Oncology reports, 49(5), 99. Abstract Numerous years of cell line‑based studies have enhanced the […]

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KIIT School Of Biotechnology


  1. Butti, R., Kapse, P., Bhadauriya, G., Ahmad, S., Chaubal, R., Parab, P., Kadam, R., Mahapatra, S. S., Shet, T., Dutt, A., Gupta, S., & Kundu, G. C. (2023). Development and characterization of a patient‑derived orthotopic xenograft of therapy‑resistant breast cancer. Oncology reports49(5), 99.


Numerous years of cell line‑based studies have enhanced the current understanding of cancer and its treatment. However, limited success has been achieved in treating hormone receptor‑positive, HER2‑negative metastatic breast cancers that are refractory to treatment. The majority of cancer cell lines are unsuitable for use as pre‑clinical models that mimic this critical and often fatal clinical type, since they are derived from treatment‑naive or non‑metastatic breast cancer cases. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize patient‑derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOXs) from patients with endocrine hormone receptor‑positive, HER2‑negative metastatic breast cancer who had relapsed on therapy. A patient who progressed on endocrine hormone therapy provided her tumor via a biobank. This tumor was implanted in mice. It was then serially passaged by implanting PDOX tumor fragments into another set of mice to develop further generations of PDOXs. These tissues were characterized using various histological and biochemical techniques. Histological, immunofluorescence and western blot analyses indicated that the PDOX tumors retained a similar morphology, histology and subtype‑specific molecular features to that of the patient’s tumor. The present study successfully established PDOXs of hormone‑resistant breast cancer and characterized them in comparison with those derived from the original breast cancer tissue of the patient. The data highlight the reliability and usefulness of PDOX models for studies of biomarker discovery and preclinical drug screening. The present study was registered with the clinical trial registry of India (CTRI; registration no. CTRI/2017/11/010553; registered on 17/11/2017).

  1. Lavudi, K., Harika, G. V. S., Thirunavukarasou, A., Govindarajan, G., Patnaik, S., Golla, N., Kotakadi, V. S., Penchalaneni, J. (2023). Green Synthesis of Tecoma stans Flower and Leaf Extracts: Characterization and Anti-Proliferative Activity in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines. (2022). Letters in Applied NanoBioScience, 12(3), 61.


Since times immemorial, many plant species have been utilized to cure severe diseases. A wide range of diversification has been observed in various medicinal plants, which are indeed able to cure several deadly diseases. The presence of secondary metabolites is a high priority for their medicinal characteristics. This study focused on T. stans (Yellow bells), a shrub that grows profoundly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Although many studies have been done on the medicinal value of this plant, not much has been done on cancer treatment and nanomedicine. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles are an eco-friendly approach to delivering the drug to the target size. Nano appearance is an add-on advantage of these compounds. Hence, it is emerging in medicine. Colorectal cancer is the fourth deadliest one globally. Hence the synthesized silver nanoparticles of T. stans flower and leaf extracts showed cytotoxically and wound healing properties on colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT 116 and SW 480). Synthesis of silver nanoparticles confirmation is done by Ultra Violet Visible spectrophotometry and Particle size analyzer. All the results showcase the beneficial effects of silver nanoparticles synthesized plant extracts and may be used as a novel medicine in the field of chemotherapy.

  1. Sinha, A., Vaggu, R. G., Swain, R., & Patnaik, S. (2023). Repurposing of RAS-Pathway Mediated Drugs for Intestinal Inflammation Related Diseases for Treating SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Current Microbiology, 80(6).

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging zoonotic virus, which causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Entry of coronaviruses into the cell depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The virus-mediated reduction of ACE2/Ang1-7 causes flooding of inflammatory cytokines. A similar scenario of hyper immunologic reaction has been witnessed in the context of Intestinal Inflammatory Diseases (IIDs) with the deregulation of ACE2. This review summarizes several IIDs that lead to such susceptible conditions. It discusses suitable mechanisms of how ACE2, being a crucial regulator of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) signaling pathway, can affect the physiology of intestine as well as lungs, the primary site of SARS-CoV-2 infection. ACE2, as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor, establishes a critical link between COVID-19 and IIDs. Intercessional studies targeting the RAS signaling pathway in patients may provide a novel strategy for addressing the COVID-19 crisis. Hence, the modulation of these key RAS pathway members can be beneficial in both instances. However, it’s difficult to say how beneficial are the ACE inhibitors (ACEI)/ Angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers (ARBs) during COVID-19. As a result, much more research is needed to better understand the relationship between the RAS and SARS-CoV-2 infection.

  1.  Esmaeilniakooshkghazi, A., Pham, E., George, S. P., Ahrorov, A., Villagomez, F. R., Byington, M., Mukhopadhyay, S., Patnaik, S., Conrad, J. C., Naik, M., Ravi, S., Tebbutt, N., Mooi, J., Reehorst, C. M., Mariadason, J. M., & Khurana, S. (2023). In colon cancer cells fascin1 regulates adherens junction remodeling. The FASEB Journal, 37(3).


Adherens junctions (AJs) are a defining feature of all epithelial cells. They regulate epithelial tissue architecture and integrity, and their dysregulation is a key step in tumor metastasis. AJ remodeling is crucial for cancer progression, and it plays a key role in tumor cell survival, growth, and dissemination. Few studies have examined AJ remodeling in cancer cells consequently, it remains poorly understood and unleveraged in the treatment of metastatic carcinomas. Fascin1 is an actin-bundling protein that is absent from the normal epithelium but its expression in colon cancer is linked to metastasis and increased mortality. Here, we provide the molecular mechanism of AJ remodeling in colon cancer cells and identify for the first time, fascin1’s function in AJ remodeling. We show that in colon cancer cells fascin1 remodels junctional actin and actomyosin contractility which makes AJs less stable but more dynamic. By remodeling AJs fascin1 drives mechanoactivation of WNT/β-catenin signaling and generates “collective plasticity” which influences the behavior of cells during cell migration. The impact of mechanical inputs on WNT/β-catenin activation in cancer cells remains poorly understood. Our findings highlight the role of AJ remodeling and mechanosensitive WNT/β-catenin signaling in the growth and dissemination of colorectal carcinomas. © 2023 The Authors. The FASEB Journal published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.

  1. Mahapatra, S. R., Dey, J., Raj, T. K., Misra, N., & Suar, M. (2023). Designing a Next-Generation Multiepitope-Based Vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus Using Reverse Vaccinology Approaches. Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)12(3), 376.


Staphylococcus aureus is a human bacterial pathogen that can cause a wide range of symptoms. As virulent and multi-drug-resistant strains of S. aureus have evolved, invasive S. aureus infections in hospitals and the community have become one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. The development of novel techniques is therefore necessary to overcome this bacterial infection. Vaccines are an appropriate alternative in this context to control infections. In this study, the collagen-binding protein (CnBP) from S. aureus was chosen as the target antigen, and a series of computational methods were used to find epitopes that may be used in vaccine development in a systematic way. The epitopes were passed through a filtering pipeline that included antigenicity, toxicity, allergenicity, and cytokine inducibility testing, with the objective of identifying epitopes capable of eliciting both T and B cell-mediated immune responses. To improve vaccine immunogenicity, the final epitopes and phenol-soluble modulin α4 adjuvant were fused together using appropriate linkers; as a consequence, a multiepitope vaccine was developed. The chosen T cell epitope ensemble is expected to cover 99.14% of the global human population. Furthermore, docking and dynamics simulations were used to examine the vaccine’s interaction with the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), revealing great affinity, consistency, and stability between the two. Overall, the data indicate that the vaccine candidate may be extremely successful, and it will need to be evaluated in experimental systems to confirm its efficiency.

  1. Bose, S., Singh, D. V., Adhya, T. K., & Acharya, N. (2023). Escherichia coli, but Not Staphylococcus aureus, Functions as a Chelating Agent That Exhibits Antifungal Activity against the Pathogenic Yeast Candida albicans. Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(3), 286.


Humans are colonized by diverse populations of microbes. Infections by Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, are a result of imbalances in the gut microbial ecosystem and are due to the suppressed immunity of the host. Here, we explored the potential effects of the polymicrobial interactions of C. albicans with Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterium, and Escherichia coli, a Gram-negative bacterium, in dual and triple in vitro culture systems on their respective growth, morphology, and biofilms. We found that S. aureus promoted the fungal growth and hyphal transition of C. albicans through cell-to-cell contacts; contrarily, both the cell and cell-free culture filtrate of E. coli inhibited fungal growth. A yet to be identified secretory metabolite of E. coli functionally mimicked EDTA and EGTA to exhibit antifungal activity. These findings suggested that E. coli, but not S. aureus, functions as a chelating agent and that E. coli plays a dominant role in regulating excessive growth and, potentially, the commensalism of C. albicans. Using animal models of systemic candidiasis, we found that the E. coli cell-free filtrate suppressed the virulence of C. albicans. In general, this study unraveled a significant antimicrobial activity and a potential role in the nutritional immunity of E. coli, and further determining the underlying processes behind the E. coli-C. albicans interaction could provide critical information in understanding the pathogenicity of C. albicans.

  1. Das, M., Sethy, C., Kundu, C. N., & Tripathy, J. (2023). Synergetic reinforcing effect of graphene oxide and nanosilver on carboxymethyl cellulose/sodium alginate nanocomposite films: Assessment of physicochemical and antibacterial properties. International journal of biological macromolecules, 239, 124185.


Incorporating single or combined nanofillers in polymeric matrices is a promising approach for developing antimicrobial materials for applications in wound healing and packaging etc. This study reports a facile fabrication of antimicrobial nanocomposite films using biocompatible polymers sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate (SA) reinforced with nanosilver (Ag) and graphene oxide (GO) using the solvent casting approach. Eco-friendly synthesis of Ag nanoparticles within a size range of 20-30 nm was carried out within the polymeric solution. GO was introduced into the CMC/SA/Ag solution in different weight percentages. The films were characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, Raman, XRD, FE-SEM, EDAX, and TEM. The results indicated the enhanced thermal and mechanical performance of CMC/SA/Ag-GO nanocomposites with increased GO weight %. The antibacterial efficacy of the fabricated films was evaluated on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The CMC/SA/Ag-GO2% nanocomposite exhibited the highest zone of inhibition of 21.30 ± 0.70 mm against E. coli and 18.00 ± 1.00 mm against S. aureus. The CMC/SA/Ag-GO nanocomposites exhibited excellent antibacterial activity as compared to CMC/SA and CMC/SA-Ag due to the synergetic bacterial growth inhibition activities of the GO and Ag. The cytotoxic activity of the prepared nanocomposite films was also assessed to investigate their biocompatibility.

  1. Chakraborthy, M., & Rao, A. (2023). A Feedback Loop between TGF-β1 and ATG5 Mediated by miR-122-5p Regulates Fibrosis and EMT in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells. Current issues in molecular biology45(3), 2381–2392.


Autophagy is a cell’s evolutionary conserved process for degrading and recycling cellular proteins and removing damaged organelles. There has been an increasing interest in identifying the basic cellular mechanism of autophagy and its implications in health and illness during the last decade. Many proteinopathies such as Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s disease are reported to be associated with impaired autophagy. The functional significance of autophagy in exfoliation syndrome/exfoliation glaucoma (XFS/XFG), remains unknown though it is presumed to be impaired autophagy to be responsible for the aggregopathy characteristic of this disease. In the current study we have shown that autophagy or ATG5 is enhanced in response to TGF-β1 in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells and TGF-β1 induced autophagy is necessary for increased expression of profibrotic proteins and epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) through Smad3 that lead to aggregopathy. Inhibition of ATG5 by siRNA mediated knockdown reduced profibrotic and EMT markers and increased protein aggregates in the presence of TGF-β1 stimulation. The miR-122-5p, which was increased upon TGF exposure, was also reduced upon ATG5 inhibition. We thus conclude that TGF-β1 induces autophagy in primary HTM cells and a positive feedback loop exists between TGF-β1 and ATG5 that regulated TGF downstream effects mainly mediated by Smad3 signaling with miR-122-5p also playing a role.

  1. Behera, A., Biswas, M., Ergün, S., Karnati, S., & Sonawane, A. (2023). Detection of Peroxisomal Proteins During Mycobacterial Infection. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2643, 123–134.


Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles with essential roles in lipid and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. They are involved in modulating the immune responses during microbial infection, thus having major impact on several bacterial and viral infectious diseases including tuberculosis. Intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) employ various strategies to suppress the host oxidative stress mechanisms to avoid killing by the host. Peroxisome-mediated ROS balance is crucial for innate immune responses to M. tb. Therefore, peroxisomes represent promising targets for host-directed therapeutics to tuberculosis. Here, we present protocols used in our laboratory for the culture of M. tb and detection of peroxisomal proteins in M. tb infected macrophages.

  1. Charles, S., Edgar, M. P., & Mahapatra, R. K. (2023). Artificial intelligence based virtual screening study for competitive and allosteric inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics, 1–19.


SARS-CoV-2 is a highly contagious and dangerous coronavirus that first appeared in late 2019 causing COVID-19, a pandemic of acute respiratory illnesses that is still a threat to health and the general public safety. We performed deep docking studies of 800 M unique compounds in both the active and allosteric sites of the SARS-COV-2 Main Protease (Mpro) and the 15 M and 13 M virtual hits obtained were further taken for conventional docking and molecular dynamic (MD) studies. The best XP Glide docking scores obtained were -14.242 and -12.059 kcal/mol by CHEMBL591669 and the highest binding affinities were -10.5 kcal/mol (from 444215) and -11.2 kcal/mol (from NPC95421) for active and allosteric sites, respectively. Some hits can bind both sites making them a great area of concern. Re-docking of 8 random allosteric complexes in the active site shows a significant reduction in docking scores with a t-test P value of 2.532 × 10-11 at 95% confidence. Some specific interactions have higher elevations in docking scores. MD studies on 15 complexes show that single-ligand systems are stable as compared to double-ligand systems, and the allosteric binders identified are shown to modulate the active site binding as evidenced by the changes in the interaction patterns and stability of ligands and active site residues. When an allosteric complex was docked to the second monomer to check for homodimer formation, the validated homodimer could not be re-established, further supporting the potential of the identified allosteric binders. These findings could be important in developing novel therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

  1. Dash, S. R., Das, B., Das, C., Sinha, S., Paul, S., Pradhan, R., & Kundu, C. N. (2023). Near-infrared enhances antiangiogenic potentiality of quinacrine-gold hybrid nanoparticles in breast cancer stem cells via deregulation of HSP-70/TGF-β. Nanomedicine (London, England), 10.2217/nnm-2022-0243.


Aim: This study aimed to explore the antiangiogenic mechanism of quinacrine-gold hybrid nanoparticle (QAuNP) and near-infrared (NIR) radiation in patient-derived primary breast cancer stem cells. Materials & methods: Various cell-based in ovo angiogenesis and in vivo patient-derived xenograft mouse systems were used as models for the study. Results: The experimental results showed that QAuNP + NIR treatment deregulated the HSP-70/TGF-β physical interaction in primary breast cancer stem cells. Reduced TGF-β secretion in the tumor microenvironment inhibited angiogenesis activation in endothelial cells by deregulating the TGF-β-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR cascade. Conclusion: This study revealed that QAuNP + NIR irradiation downregulated HSP-70 expression, inhibited the HSP-70/TGF-β interaction, reduced the secretion of TGF-β in the tumor microenvironment and ultimately inhibited TGF-β-mediated angiogenesis.

  1. Kumari, K., Behera, H. T., Nayak, P. P., Sinha, A., Nandi, A., Ghosh, A., Saha, U., Suar, M., Panda, P. K., Verma, S. K., & Raina, V. (2023). Amelioration of lipopeptide biosurfactants for enhanced antibacterial and biocompatibility through molecular antioxidant property by methoxy and carboxyl moieties. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 161, 114493.


Biosurfactants having surface-active biomolecules have been the cynosure in environment research due to their vast application. However, the lack of information about their low-cost production and detailed mechanistic biocompatibility limits the applicability. The study explores techniques for the production and design of low-cost, biodegradable, and non-toxic biosurfactants from Brevibacterium casei strain LS14 and excavates the mechanistic details of their biomedical properties like antibacterial effects and biocompatibility. Taguchi’s design of experiment was used to optimize for enhancing biosurfactant production by optimal factor combinations like Waste glycerol (1%v/v), peptone (1%w/v), NaCl 0.4% (w/v), and pH 6. Under optimal conditions, the purified biosurfactant reduced the surface tension to 35 mN/m from 72.8 mN/m (MSM) and a critical micelle concentration of 25 mg/ml was achieved. Spectroscopic analyses of the purified biosurfactant using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance suggested it as a lipopeptide biosurfactant. The evaluation of mechanistic antibacterial, antiradical, antiproliferative, and cellular effects indicated the efficient antibacterial activity (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa) of biosurfactants due to free radical scavenging activity and oxidative stress. Moreover, the cellular cytotoxicity was estimated by MTT and other cellular assays revealing the phenomenon as the dose-dependent induction of apoptosis due to free radical scavenging with an LC50 of 55.6 ± 2.3 mg/ml.

  1. Subhadra, S., Sreenivasulu, D., Pattnaik, R., Panda, B. K., & Kumar, S. (2023). Bluetongue virus: Past, present, and future scope. Journal of infection in developing countries, 17(2), 147–156.


Bluetongue (BT), once considered a disease of sheep confined to the southern African region, has spread all over the world. BT is a viral disease caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV). BT is regarded as an economically important disease in ruminants of compulsory notification to OIE. BTV is transmitted by the bite of Culicoides species. Research over the years has led to a better understanding of the disease, the nature of the virus life cycle between ruminants and Culicoides species, and its distribution in different geographical regions. Advances have also been made in understanding the molecular structure and function of the virus, the biology of the Culicoides species, its ability to transmit the disease, and the persistence of the virus inside the Culicoides and the mammalian hosts. Global climate change has enabled the colonization of new habitats and the spread of the virus into additional species of the Culicoides vector. This review highlights some of the current findings on the status of BT in the world based on the latest research on disease aspects, virus-host-vector interactions, and the different diagnostic approaches and control strategies available for BTV.

  1. Sarangi, P. K., Mishra, S., Mohanty, P., Singh, P. K., Srivastava, R. K., Pattnaik, R., Adhya, T. K., Das, T., Lenka, B., Gupta, V. K., Sharma, M., & Sahoo, U. K. (2023). Food and fruit waste valorisation for pectin recovery: Recent process technologies and future prospects. International journal of biological macromolecules, 235, 123929.


Pectin possesses a dual property of resistance and flexibility and thus has diverse commercial value which has generated research interest on this versatile biopolymer. Formulated products using pectin could be useful in food, pharma, foam, plasticiser and paper substitute industries. Pectin is structurally tailor-made for greater bioactivity and diverse applications. Sustainable biorefinery leaves greener footprints while producing high-value bioproducts like pectin. The essential oils and polyphenols obtained as byproducts from a pectin-based biorefinery are useful in cosmetics, toiletries and fragrance industries. Pectin can be extracted from organic sources following eco-friendly strategies, and the extraction techniques, structural alterations and the applications are continually being upgraded and standardized. Pectin has great applications in diverse areas, and its green synthesis is a welcome development. In future, growing industrial application of pectin is anticipated as research orients on biopolymers, biotechnologies and renewable source-based processes. As the world is gradually adopting greener strategies in sync with the global sustainable development goal, active involvement of policy makers and public participation are prime. Governance and policy framing are essential in the transition of the world economy towards circularity since green circular bioeconomy is ill-understood among the public in general and within the administrative circles in particular. Concerted efforts by researchers, investors, innovators, and policy and decision makers to integrate biorefinery technologies as loops within loop of biological structures and bioprocesses is suggested. The review focusses on generation of the different nature of food wastes including fruits and vegetables with cauterization of their components. It discusses the innovative extraction and biotransformation approaches for these waste conversions into value-added products at cost-effective and eco-friendly way. This article compiles numerous effective and efficient and green way pectin extraction techniques with their advantages with varying success in an integrated manner.

  1. Chakraborty, A., Roy, S., Hande, M. P., & Banerjee, B. (2023). Telomere attrition and genomic instability in unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss in humans: A preliminary study. Mutation research. Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, 886, 503580.


Genome instability is defined as an elevated rate of DNA damage and mutations as a result of exposure to potential direct and indirect mutagens. This current investigation was designed to elucidate the genomic instability among couples experiencing unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (uRPL). A cohort of 1272 individuals with history of unexplained RPL with normal karyotype was retrospectively screened for levels of intracellular ROS production, baseline genomic instability and telomere functionality. The experimental outcome was compared with 728 fertile control individuals. In this study, it was perceived that individuals with uRPL exhibited higher intracellular oxidative stress, along with higher basal levels of genomic instability as compared with the fertile controls. This observation elucidates the role of genomic instability as well as involvement of telomeres in cases of uRPL. It was also observed that higher oxidative stress might be associated with DNA damage and telomere dysfunction resulting in genomic instability among subjects with unexplained RPL. This study highlighted the assessment of genomic instability status in individuals experiencing uRPL.

  1. Sarkar, K., Dutta, K., Chatterjee, A., Sarkar, J., Das, D., Prasad, A., Chattopadhyay, D., Acharya, K., Das, M., Verma, S. K., & De, S. (2023). Nanotherapeutic potential of antibacterial folic acid-functionalized nanoceria for wound-healing applications. Nanomedicine (London, England), 10.2217/nnm-2022-0233.


Aim: The functionalization and characterization of antibacterial nanoceria with folic acid (FA) and elucidation of their in vivo wound healing application. Materials & methods: Functionalization of nanoceria were done with FA using a chemical method and their antibacterial activity, cellular biocompatibility and in vivo wound healing application were evaluated. Results: The functionalization of nanoceria with FA was done with 10 to 20 nm size and -20.1 mV zeta potential. The nanoformulation showed a bacteriostatic effect along with biocompatibility to different cell lines; 0.1% w/v spray of FA-nanoceria demonstrated excellent wound healing capacity within 14 days in a Wister rat model. Conclusion: The antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of the FA-nanoceria make it a promising therapeutic agent as a unique spray formulation in wound healing applications.

  1. Kumari, K., Nandi, A., Sinha, A., Ghosh, A., Sengupta, S., Saha, U., Singh, P. K., Panda, P. K., Raina, V., & Verma, S. K. (2023). The paradigm of prophylactic viral outbreaks measures by microbial biosurfactants. Journal of infection and public health, 16(4), 575–587.


The recent emergence and outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic confirmed the incompetence of countries across the world to deal with a global public health emergency. Although the recent advent of vaccines is an important prophylactic measure, effective clinical therapy for SARS-Cov-2 is yet to be discovered. With the increasing mortality rate, research has been focused on understanding the pathogenic mechanism and clinical parameters to comprehend COVID-19 infection and propose new avenues for naturally occurring molecules with novel therapeutic properties to alleviate the current situation. In accordance with recent clinical studies and SARS-CoV-2 infection markers, cytokine storm and oxidative stress are entwined pathogenic processes in COVID-19 progression. Lately, Biosurfactants (BSs) have been studied as one of the most advanced biomolecules of microbial origin with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral properties, antiadhesive, and antimicrobial properties. Therefore, this review inspects available literature and proposes biosurfactants with these properties to be encouraged for their extensive study in dealing with the current pandemic as new pharmaceutics in the prevention and control of viral spread, treating the symptoms developed after the incubation period through different therapeutic approaches and playing a potential drug delivery model.

  1. Mandal, D., Lohan, S., Sajid, M. I., Alhazza, A., Tiwari, R. K., Parang, K., & Montazeri Aliabadi, H. (2023). Modified Linear Peptides Effectively Silence STAT-3 in Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines. Pharmaceutics, 15(2), 666.


RNA interference (RNAi) has drawn enormous attention as a powerful tool because of its capability to interfere with mRNA and protein production. However, designing a safe and efficient delivery system in RNAi therapeutics remains challenging. Herein, we have designed and synthesized several linear peptides containing tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues separated by the β-alanine (βA) spacer and attached to a lipophilic fatty acyl chain, cholesterol, or PEG. The peptide backbone sequences were: Ac-C-βA-βA-W4-βA-βA-R4-CO-NH2 and Ac-K-βA-βA-W4-βA-βA-R4-CO-NH2, with only a difference in N-terminal amino acid. The cysteine side chain in the first sequence was used for the conjugation with PEG2000 and PEG550. Alternatively, the side chain of lysine in the second sequence was used for conjugation with cholesterol or oleic acid. We hypothesized that amphiphilic peptides and optimum fatty acyl chain or PEG could function as an effective siRNA carrier by complementing each structural component’s self-assembly and membrane internalization properties. None of the designed peptides showed cytotoxicity up to 10 µM. Serum stability studies suggested that the newly designed peptides efficiently protected siRNA against early degradation by nucleases. Flow cytometry analysis indicated 50-90% cellular uptake of siRNA using the newly developed modified linear peptides (MLPs). Western blot results revealed more than 90% protein downregulation after targeting STAT3 in MDA-MB-231 and SKOV-3 cell lines. In summary, a new peptide class was developed to safely and efficiently deliver siRNA.

  1. Basu, J., Madhulika, S., Murmu, K. C., Mohanty, S., Samal, P., Das, A., Mahapatra, S., Saha, S., Sinha, I., & Prasad, P. (2023). Molecular and epigenetic alterations in normal and malignant myelopoiesis in human leukemia 60 (HL60) promyelocytic cell line model. Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 11, 1060537.


In vitro cell line model systems are essential in supporting the research community due to their low cost, uniform culturing conditions, homogeneous biological resources, and easy experimental design to study the cause and effect of a gene or a molecule. Human leukemia 60 (HL60) is an in-vitro hematopoietic model system that has been used for decades to study normal myeloid differentiation and leukemia biology. Here, we show that IMDM supplemented with 20% FBS is an optimal culturing condition and induces effective myeloid differentiation compared with RPMI supplemented with 10% FBS when HL60 is induced with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit D3) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The chromatin organization is compacted, and the repressive epigenetic mark H3K27me3 is enhanced upon HL60-mediated terminal differentiation. Differential gene expression analysis obtained from RNA sequencing in HL60 cells during myeloid differentiation showed the induction of pathways involved in epigenetic regulation, myeloid differentiation, and immune regulation. Using high-throughput transcriptomic data (GSE74246), we show the similarities (genes that did not satisfy |log2FC|>1 and FDR<0.05) and differences (FDR <0.05 and |log2FC|>1) between granulocyte-monocyte progenitor vs HL60 cells, Vit D3 induced monocytes (vMono) in HL60 cells vs primary monocytes (pMono), and HL60 cells vs leukemic blasts at the transcriptomic level. We found striking similarities in biological pathways between these comparisons, suggesting that the HL60 model system can be effectively used for studying myeloid differentiation and leukemic aberrations. The differences obtained could be attributed to the fact that the cellular programs of the leukemic cell line and primary cells are different. We validated several gene expression patterns for different comparisons with CD34+ cells derived from cord blood for myeloid differentiation and AML patients. In addition to the current knowledge, our study further reveals the significance of using HL60 cells as in vitro model system under optimal conditions to understand its potential as normal myeloid differentiation model as well as leukemic model at the molecular level.

  1. Singh, A., Muduli, C., Senanayak, S. P., & Goswami, L. (2023). Graphite nanopowder incorporated xanthan gum scaffold for effective bone tissue regeneration purposes with improved biomineralization. International journal of biological macromolecules, 234, 123724.


In the current work, biomaterial composed of Xanthan gum and Diethylene glycol dimethacrylate with impregnation of graphite nanopowder filler in their matrices was fabricated successfully for their potential usage in the engineering of bone defects. Various physicochemical properties associated with the biomaterial were characterized using FTIR, XRD, TGA, SEM etc. The biomaterial rheological studies imparted the better notable properties associated with the inclusion of graphite nanopowder. The biomaterial synthesized exhibited a controlled drug release. Adhesion and proliferation of different secondary cell lines do not generate ROS on the current biomaterial and thus show its biocompatibility and non-toxic nature. The synthesized biomaterial’s osteogenic potential on SaOS-2 cells was supported by increased ALP activity, enhanced differentiation and biomineralization under osteoinductive circumstances. The current biomaterial demonstrates that in addition to the drug-delivery applications, it can also be a cost-effective substrate for cellular activities and has all the necessary properties to be considered as a promising alternative material suitable for repairing and restoring bone tissues. We propose that this biomaterial may have commercial importance in the biomedical field.

  1. Patel, P., Nandi, A., Verma, S. K., Kaushik, N., Suar, M., Choi, E. H., & Kaushik, N. K. (2023). Zebrafish-based platform for emerging bio-contaminants and virus inactivation research. The Science of the total environment, 872, 162197.


Emerging bio-contaminants such as viruses have affected health and environment settings of every country. Viruses are the minuscule entities resulting in severe contagious diseases like SARS, MERS, Ebola, and avian influenza. Recent epidemic like the SARS-CoV-2, the virus has undergone mutations strengthen them and allowing to escape from the remedies. Comprehensive knowledge of viruses is essential for the development of targeted therapeutic and vaccination treatments. Animal models mimicking human biology like non-human primates, rats, mice, and rabbits offer competitive advantage to assess risk of viral infections, chemical toxins, nanoparticles, and microbes. However, their economic maintenance has always been an issue. Furthermore, the redundancy of experimental results due to aforementioned aspects is also in examine. Hence, exploration for the alternative animal models is crucial for risk assessments. The current review examines zebrafish traits and explores the possibilities to monitor emerging bio-contaminants. Additionally, a comprehensive picture of the bio contaminant and virus particle invasion and abatement mechanisms in zebrafish and human cells is presented. Moreover, a zebrafish model to investigate the emerging viruses such as coronaviridae and poxviridae has been suggested.

  1. Samanta, I., Roy, P. C., Das, E., Mishra, S., & Chowdhary, G. (2023). Plant Peroxisomal Polyamine Oxidase: A Ubiquitous Enzyme Involved in Abiotic Stress Tolerance. Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(3), 652.


Polyamines (PAs) are positively charged amines that are present in all organisms. In addition to their functions specific to growth and development, they are involved in responding to various biotic and abiotic stress tolerance functions. The appropriate concentration of PA in the cell is maintained by a delicate balance between the catabolism and anabolism of PAs, which is primarily driven by two enzymes, namely diamine oxidase and polyamine oxidase (PAO). PAOs have been found to be localized in multiple subcellular locations, including peroxisomes. This paper presents a holistic account of peroxisomal PAOs. PAOs are flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes with varying degrees of substrate specificity. They are expressed differentially upon various abiotic stress conditions, namely heat, cold, salinity, and dehydration. It has also been observed that in a particular species, the various PAO isoforms are expressed differentially with a spatial and temporal distinction. PAOs are targeted to peroxisome via a peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS) type 1. We conducted an extensive bioinformatics analysis of PTS1s present in various peroxisomal PAOs and present a consensus peroxisome targeting signal present in PAOs. Furthermore, we also propose an evolutionary perspective of peroxisomal PAOs. PAOs localized in plant peroxisomes are of potential importance in abiotic stress tolerance since peroxisomes are one of the nodal centers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and an increase in ROS is a major indicator of the plant being in stress conditions; hence, in the future, PAO enzymes could be used as a key candidate for generating abiotic stress tolerant crops.

  1. Kumar Panda, R., Darshana Patra, S., Kumar Mohakud, N., Ranjan Sahu, B., Ghosh, M., Misra, N., & Suar, M. (2023). Draft genome of clinical isolate Salmonella enterica Typhimurium ms204 from Odisha, India, reveals multi drug resistance and decreased virulent gene expression. Gene, 863, 147248.


Salmonellosis, a food-borne illnesses caused by enteropathogenic bacterium Salmonella spp., is a continuous concern in both developed and developing countries. This study was carried out to perform an in-depth examination of an MDR Salmonella strain isolated from gastroenteritis patients in Odisha, India, in order to understand the genomic architecture, distribution of pathogenic island regions, and virulence factor diversity. Fecal samples were obtained from individuals with acute gastroenteritis and further subjected to panel of biochemical tests. The IlluminaHiSeq X sequencer system was used to generate whole-genome sequencing. The draft genome was submitted to gene prediction and annotation using RAST annotation system. Pathogenicity Island database and bioinformatics pipeline were used to find Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI) from the built scaffold. The gene expression in SPI1 and SPI2 encoded regions was investigated using qRT-PCR. The taxonomic position of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium was validated by serotype analysis and 16S rRNA based phylogenetic analysis. The de-novo genome assembly showed total length of 5,034,110 bp and produced 37 contigs. There are nine prophage areas, comprising of 12 regions and scaffold 8 contained a single plasmid, IncFIB. The isolate contains six known SPI genes content which was shown to be largely conserved from SPI1 to SPI2. We identified the sit ABCD cluster regulatory cascade and acquired antibiotic resistance genes in S. enterica Typhimurium ms204. Further research may aid in the correct diagnosis and monitoring of MDR Salmonella strains with a variety of physiological activities.

  1. Dash, S. R., & Kundu, C. N. (2023). Cancer-induced pain management by nanotechnology-based approach. Current pharmaceutical biotechnology, 10.2174/1389201024666230123150856.


Cancer patients frequently report experiencing pain as one of their symptoms. Cancerrelated pain is often caused by the tumor itself, especially when the tumor is pressing on nerves. In addition to the pain caused by the tumor itself, patients also experience discomfort from the treatment, such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and the diagnostic procedures. The majority of today’s pain therapies rely on opioid analgesics, which have not been shown to be effective. The adverse effects of opioids and their addictive properties call for the development of innovative treatment techniques. Nanotechnology offers answers to the issues raised above, which are related to the utilization of more conventional modes of therapy. These nanotechnology-based nanotherapeutics reduce the systemic toxicity, offering outstanding selectiveness and prolonged release of the analgesic drugs at the target site. Thus, these reduce cancer-induced pain in the patients. In this article, we will explain the mechanism behind the most common types of pain that are caused by cancer, including neuropathic, somatic, and visceral pain. In addition, a comprehensive discussion is held on the use of various nanotherapeutics as analgesic drug carriers, as well as on their impacts and the potential opportunities that lie ahead in the field of cancer pain treatment.

  1. Jaiswal, K. S., Malka, O., Shauloff, N., Bersudsky, M., Voronov, E., Gupta, B., & Jelinek, R. (2023). Genistein carbon dots exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 223, 113173.


Genistein, an isoflavone from soybean, has attracted attention due to its health benefits, particularly antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Clinical applications of genistein, however, have been limited due to the considerable hydrophobicity and lower bioavailability of the molecule. In this study, carbon dots (C-dots) synthesized from genistein as the carbonaceous precursor exhibit antioxidant properties in test-tube and cell experiments. Anti-inflammatory activity of the genistein-C-dots was also recorded in LPS stimulated macrophages, manifested in inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and enhancement anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the genistein-C-dots, particularly in comparison to the parent genistein molecules, likely account to the display of functional genistein residues on the C-dots’ surfaces, and low band gap energy facilitating electron scavenging. Importantly, the genistein-C-dots featured biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity, underlining their potential as a therapeutic vehicle against inflammatory conditions.

  1. Chatterjee, R., Mahapatra, S. R., Dey, J., Raj Takur, K., Raina, V., Misra, N., & Suar, M. (2023). An immunoinformatics and structural vaccinology study to design a multi-epitope vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus infection. Journal of molecular recognition: JMR, 36(4), e3007.


Staphylococcus aureus has been widely reported to be majorly responsible for causing nosocomial infections worldwide. Due to an increase in antibiotic-resistant strains, the development of an effective vaccine against the bacteria is the most viable alternative. Therefore, in the current work, an effort has been undertaken to develop a novel peptide-based vaccine construct against S aureus that can potentially evoke the B and T cell immune responses. The fibronectin-binding proteins are an attractive target as they play a prominent role in bacterial adherence and host cell invasion and are also well conserved among rapidly mutating pathogens. Therefore, highly immunogenic linear B lymphocytes (LBL), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), and helper T lymphocytes (HTL) epitopes were identified from the antigenic fibronectin-binding proteins A and B (FnBPA and FnBPB) of S aureus using immunoinformatics approaches. The selected peptides were confirmed to be non-allergenic, non-toxic, and with a high binding affinity to the majority of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) alleles. Consequently, the multi-peptide vaccine construct was developed by fusing the screened epitopes (three LBL, five CTL, and two HTL) together with the suitable adjuvant and linkers. In addition, the tertiary conformation of the peptide construct was modeled and later docked to the Toll-like receptor 2. Subsequently, a molecular dynamics simulation of 100 ns was employed to corroborate the stability of the designed vaccine-receptor complex. Besides exhibiting high immunogenicity and conformational stability, the developed vaccine was observed to possess wide population coverage of 99.51% worldwide. Additional in vivo and in vitro validation studies would certainly corroborate the designed vaccine construct to have improved prophylactic efficacy against S aureus.

  1. Kode, J., Maharana, J., Dar, A. A., Mukherjee, S., Gadewal, N., Sigalapalli, D. K., Kumar, S., Panda, D., Ghosh, S., Keshry, S. S., Mamidi, P., Chattopadhyay, S., Pradhan, T., Kailaje, V., Inamdar, S., & Gujjarwar, V. (2023). 6-Shogaol Exhibits Anti-viral and Anti-inflammatory Activity in COVID-19-Associated Inflammation by Regulating NLRP3 Inflammasomes. ACS omega, 8(2), 2618–2628.


Recent global health concern motivated the exploration of natural medicinal plant resources as an alternative target for treating COVID-19 infection and associated inflammation. In the current study, a phytochemical, 6-shogaol [1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)dec-4-en-3-one; 6-SHO] was investigated as a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-COVID-19 agent. In virus release assay, 6-SHO efficiently (94.5%) inhibited SARS-CoV2 replication. When tested in the inflammasome activation model, 6-SHO displayed mechanistic action by regulating the expression of the inflammasome pathway molecules. In comparison to the existing drugs, remdesivir and hydroxy-chloroquine, 6-SHO was not only found to be as effective as the standard anti-viral drugs but also much superior and safe in terms of predicted physicochemical properties and clinical toxicity. Comparative molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated a stable interaction of 6-SHO with NLRP3 (the key inflammasome regulator) in the explicit water environment. Overall, this study provides important cues for further development of 6-SHO as potential anti-inflammatory and anti-viral therapeutic agents.

  1. Sinha, A., Bhattacharjee, R., Bhattacharya, B., Nandi, A., Shekhar, R., Jana, A., Saha, K., Kumar, L., Patro, S., Panda, P. K., Kaushik, N. K., Suar, M., & Verma, S. K. (2023). The paradigm of miRNA and siRNA influence in Oral-biome. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 159, 114269.


Short nucleotide sequences like miRNA and siRNA have attracted a lot of interest in Oral-biome investigations. miRNA is a small class of non-coding RNA that regulates gene expression to provide effective regulation of post-transcription. On contrary, siRNA is 21-25 nucleotide dsRNA impairing gene function post-transcriptionally through inhibition of mRNA for homologous dependent gene silencing. This review highlights the application of miRNA in oral biome including oral cancer, dental implants, periodontal diseases, gingival fibroblasts, oral submucous fibrosis, radiation-induced oral mucositis, dental Pulp, and oral lichenoid disease. Moreover, we have also discussed the application of siRNA against the aforementioned disease along with the impact of miRNA and siRNA to the various pathways and molecular effectors pertaining to the dental diseases. The influence of upregulation and downregulation of molecular effector post-treatment with miRNA and siRNA and their impact on the clinical setting has been elucidated. Thus, the mentioned details on application of miRNA and siRNA will provide a novel gateway to the scholars to not only mitigate the long-lasting issue in dentistry but also develop new theragnostic approaches.

  1. Panda, S., Singh, P. K., Mishra, S., Mitra, S., Pattnaik, P., Adhikary, S. D., & Mohapatra, R. K. (2023). Indian Biosimilars and Vaccines at Crossroads-Replicating the Success of Pharmagenerics. Vaccines, 11(1), 110.


The global pharma sector is fast shifting from generics to biologics and biosimilars with the first approval in Europe in 2006 followed by US approval in 2015. In the form of Hepatitis B vaccine, India saw its first recombinant biologics approval in 2000. Around 20% of generic medications and 62% of vaccines are now supplied by the Indian pharmaceutical industry. It is this good position in biologics and biosimilars production that could potentially improve healthcare via decreased treatment cost. India has witnessed large investments in biosimilars over the years. Numerous India-bred new players, e.g., Enzene Biosciences Ltd., are keen on biosimilars and have joined the race alongside the emerging giants, e.g., Biocon and Dr. Reddy’s. A very positive sign was the remarkable disposition during the COVID-19 pandemic by Bharat Biotech and the Serum Institute of India. India’s biopharmaceutical industry has been instrumental in producing and supplying preventives and therapeutics to fight COVID-19. Despite a weak supply chain and workforce pressure, the production was augmented to provide reasonably priced high-quality medications to more than 133 nations. Biosimilars could cost-effectively treat chronic diseases involving expensive conventional therapies, including diabetes, respiratory ailments, cancer, and connective tissue diseases. Biologics and biosimilars have been and are being tested to treat and manage COVID-19 symptoms characterized by inflammation and respiratory distress.

  1. Li, C. P., Wu, D. H., Huang, S. H., Meng, M., Shih, H. T., Lai, M. H., Chen, L. J., Jena, K. K., Hechanova, S. L., Ke, T. J., Chiu, T. Y., Tsai, Z. Y., Chen, G. K., Tsai, K. C., & Leu, W. M. (2023). The Bph45 Gene Confers Resistance against Brown Planthopper in Rice by Reducing the Production of Limonene. International journal of molecular sciences, 24(2), 1798.


Brown planthopper (BPH), a monophagous phloem feeder, consumes a large amount of photoassimilates in rice and causes wilting. A near-isogenic line ‘TNG71-Bph45’ was developed from the Oryza sativa japonica variety ‘Tainung 71 (TNG71) carrying a dominant BPH-resistance locus derived from Oryza nivara (IRGC 102165) near the centromere of chromosome 4. We compared the NIL (TNG71-Bph45) and the recurrent parent to explore how the Bph45 gene confers BPH resistance. We found that TNG71-Bph45 is less attractive to BPH at least partially because it produces less limonene. Chiral analysis revealed that the major form of limonene in both rice lines was the L-form. However, both L- and D-limonene attracted BPH when applied exogenously to TNG71-Bph45 rice. The transcript amounts of limonene synthase were significantly higher in TNG71 than in TNG71-Bph45 and were induced by BPH infestation only in the former. Introgression of the Bph45 gene into another japonica variety, Tainan 11, also resulted in a low limonene content. Moreover, several dominantly acting BPH resistance genes introduced into the BPH-sensitive IR24 line compromised its limonene-producing ability and concurrently decreased its attractiveness to BPH. These observations suggest that reducing limonene production may be a common resistance strategy against BPH in rice.

  1. Bhal, S., & Kundu, C. N. (2023). Targeting crosstalk of signaling pathways in cancer stem cells: a promising approach for development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics. Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England), 40(2), 82.


Wnt, Hedgehog (Hh), and Notch signaling pathways are the evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways that regulate the embryonic development and also play crucial role in maintaining stemness properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis, and angiogenesis. It has been highly challenging to inhibit the CSCs growth and proliferation as these are capable of evading chemotherapeutic drugs and cause cancer recurrence through multiple signaling pathways. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies to target the key players involved in the crosstalk of these signaling pathways need to be developed. In this review, we have identified the interacting molecules of Wnt, Hh, and Notch pathways responsible for enhancing the malignant properties of CSCs. Analyzing the functions of these crosstalk molecules will help us to find an approach toward the development of new anti-cancer drugs for inhibition of CSCs growth and progression. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) play a significant role in various cellular processes, like chromatin remodeling, epigenetic modifications, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional regulations. Here, we have highlighted the research findings suggesting the involvement of LncRNAs in maintenance of the stemness properties of CSCs through modulation of the above-mentioned signaling pathways. We have also discussed about the different therapeutic approaches targeting those key players responsible for mediating the crosstalk between the pathways. Overall, this review article will surely help the cancer biologists to design novel anti-CSCs agents that will open up a new horizon in the field of anti-cancer therapeutics.

  1. Husain, S., Nandi, A., Simnani, F. Z., Saha, U., Ghosh, A., Sinha, A., Sahay, A., Samal, S. K., Panda, P. K., & Verma, S. K. (2023). Emerging Trends in Advanced Translational Applications of Silver Nanoparticles: A Progressing Dawn of Nanotechnology. Journal of functional biomaterials, 14(1), 47.


Nanoscience has emerged as a fascinating field of science, with its implementation in multiple applications in the form of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has recently been more impactful in diverse sectors such as the pharmaceutical industry, agriculture sector, and food market. The peculiar properties which make nanoparticles as an asset are their large surface area and their size, which ranges between 1 and 100 nanometers (nm). Various technologies, such as chemical and biological processes, are being used to synthesize nanoparticles. The green chemistry route has become extremely popular due to its use in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Nanomaterials are versatile and impactful in different day to day applications, resulting in their increased utilization and distribution in human cells, tissues, and organs. Owing to the deployment of nanoparticles at a high demand, the need to produce nanoparticles has raised concerns regarding environmentally friendly processes. These processes are meant to produce nanomaterials with improved physiochemical properties that can have significant uses in the fields of medicine, physics, and biochemistry. Among a plethora of nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles have emerged as the most investigated and used nanoparticle. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have become vital entities of study due to their distinctive properties which the scientific society aims to investigate the uses of. The current review addresses the modern expansion of AgNP synthesis, characterization, and mechanism, as well as global applications of AgNPs and their limitations.

  1. Das, A., Sinha, T., Mishra, S. S., Das, D., & Panda, A. C. (2023). Identification of potential proteins translated from circular RNA splice variants. European journal of cell biology, 102(1), 151286.


Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are covalently closed RNA molecules generated from precursor RNAs by the head-to-tail backsplicing of exons. Hundreds of studies demonstrated that circRNAs are ubiquitously expressed and regulate cellular events by modulating microRNA (miRNA) and RNA-binding protein (RBP) activities. A few circRNAs are also known to translate into functional polypeptides regulating cellular physiology. All these functions primarily depend on the full-length sequence of the circRNAs. CircRNA backsplice junction sequence is the key to identifying circRNAs and their full-length mature sequence. However, some multi-exonic circRNAs exist in different isoforms sharing identical backsplice junction sequences and are termed circRNA splice variants. Here, we analyzed the previously published HeLa cell RNA-seq datasets to identify circRNA splice variants using the de novo module of the CIRCexplorer2 circRNA annotation pipeline. A subset of circRNAs with splice variants was validated by the circRNA-rolling circle amplification (circRNA-RCA) method. Interestingly, several validated circRNAs were predicted to translate into proteins by the riboCIRC database. Furthermore, polyribosome fractionation followed by quantitative PCR confirmed the association of a subset of circRNAs with polyribosome supporting their protein-coding potential. Finally, bioinformatics analysis of proteins derived from splice variants of circCORO1C and circASPH suggested altered protein sequences and structures that could affect their physiological functions. Together, our study identified novel circRNA splice variants and their potential translation into protein isoforms which may regulate various physiological processes.

  1. Chanda Roy, P., & Chowdhary, G. (2023). Molecular cloning of glutathione reductase from Oryza sativa, demonstrating its peroxisomal localization and upregulation by abiotic stresses. Acta biochimica Polonica, 70(1), 175–181.


Abiotic stress is a major constraint on crop productivity and in the agricultural field, multiple abiotic stresses act synchronously leading to substantial damage to plants. A common after-effect of abiotic stress-induced damage in plants is an increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative damage. Glutathione reductase (GR) plays a significant role in curtailing ROS. Apart from the GR enzyme, the peroxisome as an organelle also plays a significant role in ROS homeostasis. Here, we report a peroxisome localized GR, whose expression was found to be upregulated by various abiotic stresses. The in silico analysis also revealed that the peroxisomal localization of GR could be a common phenomenon in angiosperms, suggesting that it could be a suitable candidate against abiotic stress combinations.

  1. Behera, C. K., Gyandeep, G., Mishra, R., Mohanty, R. P., Pal, A., Behera, J., Samal, S., & Das, B. (2023). Genetic analysis of a Fanconi anemia case revealed the presence of FANCF mutation (exon 1;469>C-T) with implications to develop acute myeloid leukemia. Molecular biology reports, 50(1), 931–936.


Background: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder and one of the most common inherited forms of aplastic anemia. FA is an autosomal recessive or X-linked genetic disorder that is characterized by typical physical malformations and haematopoietic anomalies. In most cases of FA, patients harbor homozygous or double heterozygous mutations in the FANCA (60-65%), FANCC (10-15%), FANCG (~ 10%), FANCD2 (3-6%) or FANCF (2%) genes in different ethnic populations, which leads to inherited bone marrow failure (IBMF). Hence, it is important to screen such mutations in correlation with clinical manifestations of FA in various ethnic populations. Approach: An 11 year old female pediatric patient of an East India family was presented with febrile illness, having thrombocytopenia with positive dengue IgM (Immunoglobulin M) and treated as a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever at the initial stage of diagnosis. Chromosomal breakage study was performed based on the abnormal physical examination, which showed 100% breaks, triradials, and quadrilaterals in mitomycin (MMC)-induced peripheral blood lymphocyte culture. Importantly, conventional cytogenetic assay in most of the bone marrow cells revealed an additional gain in chromosome 3q+ [46,XX,add(3)(q25)] and terminal loss in chr8p- [46,XX,del(8)(p23)], which might have a prognostic relevance in the outcomes of the FA patient. The bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were repeated and the results showed acute leukemia with 39% blast cells. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of the patient confirmed the presence of (exon 1; 496 > C-T) non-sense mutation leading to a truncated FANCF protein attributed to a stop codon at the amino acid position 166. Conclusion: The study reported the presence of a homozygous C-T exon 1 mutation in FANCF gene in the female pediatric patient from Odisha, India associated with FA. Furthermore, both parents were found to be carriers of FANCF gene mutation, as this allele was found to be in heterozygous state upon genome sequencing. The pathogenicity of the agent was robustly supported by the clinical phenotype and biochemical observations, wherein the patient eventually developed acute myeloid leukemia. The findings of the study infer the importance of early detection of FA and the associated mutations, which might lead to the development of acute myeloid leukemia.

  1. Sahu, B., & Bal, N. C. (2023). Adipokines from white adipose tissue in regulation of whole body energy homeostasis. Biochimie, 204, 92–107.


Diseases originating from altered energy homeostasis including obesity, and type 2 diabetes are rapidly increasing worldwide. Research in the last few decades on animal models and humans demonstrates that the white adipose tissue (WAT) is critical for energy balance and more than just an energy storage site. WAT orchestrates the whole-body metabolism through inter-organ crosstalk primarily mediated by cytokines named “Adipokines”. The adipokines influence metabolism and fuel selection of the skeletal muscle and liver thereby fine-tuning the load on WAT itself in physiological conditions like starvation, exercise and cold. In addition, adipokine secretion is influenced by various pathological conditions like obesity, inflammation and diabetes. In this review, we have surveyed the current state of knowledge on important adipokines and their significance in regulating energy balance and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, we have summarized the interplay of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory adipokines in the modulation of pathological conditions.

  1. Sahu, B., Tikoo, O., Pati, B., Senapati, U., & Bal, N. C. (2023). Role of Distinct Fat Depots in Metabolic Regulation and Pathological Implications. Reviews of physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology, 186, 135–176.


People suffering from obesity and associated metabolic disorders including diabetes are increasing exponentially around the world. Adipose tissue (AT) distribution and alteration in their biochemical properties play a major role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that AT heterogeneity and depot-specific physiological changes are vital in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues like muscle and liver. Classically, AT depots are classified into white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT); WAT is the site of fatty acid storage, while BAT is a dedicated organ of metabolic heat production. The discovery of beige adipocyte clusters in WAT depots indicates AT heterogeneity has a more central role than hither to ascribed. Therefore, we have discussed in detail the current state of understanding on cellular and molecular origin of different AT depots and their relevance toward physiological metabolic homeostasis. A major focus is to highlight the correlation between altered WAT distribution in the body and metabolic pathogenesis in animal models and humans. We have also underscored the disparity in the molecular (including signaling) changes in various WAT tissues during diabetic pathogenesis. Exercise-mediated beneficial alteration in WAT physiology/distribution that protects against metabolic disorders is evolving. Here we have discussed the depot-specific biochemical adjustments induced by different forms of exercise. A detailed understanding of the molecular details of inter-organ crosstalk via substrate utilization/storage and signaling through chemokines provide strategies to target selected WAT depots to pharmacologically mimic the benefits of exercise countering metabolic diseases including diabetes.

  1. Simnani, F. Z., Singh, D., Choudhury, A., & Akhtar, A. (2023). Impact of COVID-19 on Brain and Psychological Health, its Possible Mechanisms, and Coping Strategies. Recent patents on biotechnology, 17(1), 62–79.


COVID-19 pandemic has been depicted to possess a robust association with psychological disorders. SARS-CoV-2 is the most recent virus of the coronavirus family and has the potential to bind the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) receptor. The receptor is mainly present peripherally and to some extent in the brain. Different psychological and neurodegenerative disorders can arise due to the peripheral origin of destruction. These triggers could be inflammatory pathways releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines reaching the brain and causing neuroinflammation. In continuation with traditional viruses, SARS-CoV-2 too might lead to brain diseases like meningitis, encephalitis, etc. Besides, several peripheral hormonal changes like cortisol can influence neurochemical alterations, thereby inflicting mood-related activities and psychological phenomena. In this regard, health care workers, frontline line warriors and relatives of COVID-19 patients can be the secondary victims; however, patients with COVID-19 remain the primary ones prone to neurological health problems. Several strategies like socialization, engagement, physical activity, etc., are well-opted measures to get relief from and check psychiatric disturbances. The worth of this review can be attributed to the understanding of brain-related mechanisms of COVID-19 in the context of its mechanism of action to create the pathology pertaining to brain disorder, precisely psychological devastation. Likewise, its epidemiological relevance has concisely been mentioned. Furthermore, different categories and classes of people prone to psychological deterioration are briefly elaborated on. Lastly, some coping strategies and approaches have been discussed to minimize or combat mental health problems.

  1. Panda, J., Sahoo, T., Swain, J., Panda, P. K., Tripathy, B. C., Samantaray, R., & Sahu, R. (2023). The Journey from Porous Materials to Metal-organic Frameworks and their Catalytic Applications: A Review. Current organic synthesis, 20(2), 220–237.


Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs), a class of inorganic-organic hybrid materials, have been at the center of material science for the past three decades. They are synthesized by metal ions and organic linker precursors and have become very potential materials for different applications ranging from sensing, separation, catalytic behaviour to biomedical applications and drug delivery, owing to their structural flexibility, porosity and functionality. They are also very promising in heterogeneous catalysis for various industrial applications. These catalysts can be easily synthesized with extremely high surface areas, tunable pore sizes, and incorporation of catalytic centers via post-synthetic modification (PSM) or exchange of their components as compared to traditional heterogeneous catalysts, which is the preliminary requirement of a better catalyst. Here, in this review, we have presented the history of MOFs, different synthesis procedures, and MOFcatalysed reactions; for instance, coupling reactions, condensation reactions, Friedel-Crafts reaction, oxidation, etc. Special attention has been given to MOFs containing different catalytic centers, including open metal sites, incorporation of catalytic centers through PSM, and bifunctional acidbase sites. The important role of catalytic centers present in MOFs and reaction mechanisms have also been outlined with examples.

  1. Panda, C., & Mahapatra, R. K. (2023). Bi-Directional Relationship Between Autophagy and Inflammasomes in Neurodegenerative Disorders. Cellular and molecular neurobiology, 43(1), 115–137.


The innate immune system, as the first line of cellular defense, triggers a protective response called inflammation when encountered with invading pathogens. Inflammasome is a multi-protein cytosolic signaling complex that induces inflammation and is critical for inflammation-induced pyroptotic cell death. Inflammasome activation has been found associated with neurodegenerative disorders (NDs), inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Autophagy is a crucial intracellular quality control and homeostasis process which removes the dysfunctional organelles, damaged proteins, and pathogens by sequestering the cytosolic components in a double-membrane vesicle, which eventually fuses with lysosome resulting in cargo degradation. Autophagy disruption has been observed in many NDs presented with persistent neuroinflammation and excessive inflammasome activation. An interplay between inflammation activation and the autophagy process has been realized over the last decade. In the case of NDs, autophagy regulates neuroinflammation load and cellular damage either by engulfing the misfolded protein deposits, dysfunctional mitochondria, or the inflammasome complex itself. A healthy two-way regulation between both cellular processes has been realized for cell survival and cell defense during inflammatory conditions. Therefore, clinical interest in the modulation of inflammasome activation by autophagy inducers is rapidly growing. In this review, we discuss the structural basis of inflammasome activation and the mechanistic ideas of the autophagy process in NDs. Along with comments on multiple ways of neuroinflammation regulation by microglial autophagy, we also present a perspective on pharmacological opportunities in this molecular interplay pertaining to NDs.

  1. Samanta, I., Chaturvedi, S., Roy, P. C., & Chowdhary, G. (2023). Molecular cloning, subcellular localization, and abiotic stress induction analysis of a polyamine oxidase gene from Oryza sativa. International journal of Agronomy, 5686484, 1-9,


Abiotic stress is a major bottleneck for crop productivity. To counter abiotic stresses, plants have developed several strategies, and the accumulation of polyamine (PA) serving as an osmolyte is one of them. The cellular pool of PAs is primarily regulated by polyamine oxidases (PAOs) either by terminal catabolism or by back conversion (BC) of polyamines. The role of PAO in abiotic stress tolerance has also been reported. Polyamine oxidases are primarily localized in the cytosol, cell wall, and apoplastic regions; however, lately, their peroxisomal localization has also been demonstrated. In this study, we reported the detection of polyamine oxidase isoform 3 from Oryza sativa (OsPAO3) in peroxisome as early as 12 h post-transformation under in vitro conditions using fluorescent microscopy. The gene was also found to be significantly upregulated by salinity, dehydration, cold, and heat stress. We have also demonstrated that the expression of OsPAO3 gene was mediated by a second messenger, calcium. The upregulation of OsPAO3 by salinity, dehydration, cold, and heat stresses suggests that it could be a suitable candidate for providing tolerance to plants against abiotic stress combination or stress matrix, which is a common feature in agricultural field conditions. Furthermore, the data provided here would be valuable in understanding the abiotic stress-mediated signal transduction network of PAOs.

  1. Choudhari, J., Nimma, R., Nimal, S. K., Totakura Venkata, S. K., Kundu, G. C., & Gacche, R. N. (2023). Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC phytochemicals induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation signaling pathways, EMT, migration, invasion, angiogenesis and stem cell markers in melanoma cell lines. Journal of ethnopharmacology312, 116472.


Ethnopharmacological relevance: Prosopis juliflora (Sw.), DC is a xerophytic plant species that extensively grow in Asia, Africa, Australia, and Brazil. From ancient time P. juliflora is being utilized in various folk remedies for example in wound healing, fever, inflammation, measles, excrescences, diarrhea and dysentery. Traditionally, gum, paste, and smoke obtained from the leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes.

Aim of the study: Our previous studies have demonstrated the promising potential of Prosopis Juliflora leaves methanol extract (PJLME) against breast cancer, and suggested its possible integration as a complementary medicine for the effective management of breast cancer. However, evidence against how PJLME mechanistically target the cancer proliferative pathways and other targets is poorly understood. The basic aim of the present study was to understand the anti-melanoma potential of PJLME against B16f10 cells with possible mechanisms of action.

Materials and methods: MTT assay was used to determine cell viability. Wound and transwell migration assay was performed to check migration potential of cells after PJLME treatment, while clonogenic assay was carried out to understand its colony inhibition actvity. Flow cytometry was used to perform annexin V/PI assay (apoptosis assay), ROS assay, cell cycle analysis. In-vitro angiogenesis assay was performed to check formation of capillary like vascular structure after PJLME treatment. Apoptotic genes, signaling pathways markers, EMT markers and stem cell markers were determined by western blotting. In-vivo BALB/C mice xenograft model study was performed to check the effect of PJLME on in-vivo melanoma tumor growth.

Results: The experimental outcome of the present study has clearly demonstrated the inhibition of growth, migration, invasion, colony formation and apoptosis inducing potential of PJLME against mouse melanoma cancer cells. Treatment of B16F10 melanoma cells with PJLME resulted in arrest of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Annexin V-FITC/PI assay confirmed the apoptosis inducing potential of PJLME in B16F10 and A375 melanoma cells. Furthermore, Western blot experiments confirmed that the treatment of PJLME downregulates the expression of anti-apoptotic gene like Bcl2 and increase the expression profile of pro-apoptotic genes like Bax, Bad, and Bak in B16F10 melanoma cells. HUVEC (Human umbilical vein endothelial cells) tube formation assay clearly demonstrated the anti-angiogenic potential of PJLME. The study also revealed that PJLME has potential to inhibit the Akt and Erk signaling pathways which are participating in cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion etc. The outcome of qRT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis clearly unveiled that PJLME treatment leads to downregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as stem cell markers. Finally, the in-vivo animal xenograft model study also revealed the anti-melanoma potential of PJLME by significantly inhibiting the B16F10 melanoma tumor growth in BALB/c mice model. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of PJLME showed the presence of variety of bioactive molecules associated with anticancer effects.

Conclusion: The outcome of the present investigation clearly demonstrated the anti-melanoma potential of PJLME against B16f10 melanoma cells. PJLME can be explored as an adjuvant or complementary therapy against melanoma cancer, however further studies are required to understand the clinical efficacy of PJLME. Nevertheless, it can be further explored as a promising resource for identification of novel anticancer candidate drug.

  1. Betallu, M. A., Bhalara, S. R., Sapnar, K. B., Tadke, V. B., Meena, K., Srivastava, A., Kundu, G. C., & Gorain, M. (2023). Hybrid Inorganic Complexes as Cancer Therapeutic Agents: In-vitro Validation. Nanotheranostics7(3), 270–280.


A series of novel mixed transition metal-Magnesium tartarate complexes of general formulation [MMg(C4H4O6)2 .xH2O] (where M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) is prepared with bidentate tartarate ligand. The synthesized complexes (C1 to C6) are characterized by various analytical techniques such as Elemental analysis, Thermo gravimetric analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Magnetic susceptibility study etc. All complexes exhibit the composition MMgL2 where M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) and L = bidentate tartarate ligand. Analytical data reveals all complexes possesses 1:1 (metal: ligand) ratio. FT-IR spectral study shows that bidentate tartarate ligand coordinate with metal ion in a bidentate manner through two oxygen atoms. Thermo gravimetric analysis of all complexes shows that degradation curves of complexes agrees with recommended formulae of the complexes. X-ray diffraction technique suggests that all complexes (C1 to C6) are polycrystalline in nature. All newly synthesized metal tartarate complexes and ligand were screened in vitro for their anticancer activity against human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell line. The bioassays of all these complexes showed C3 (Co) and C5 (Cu) Mg-tartarate complexes contains maximum antiproliferative activity at 200 µg/ml concentration on MDA-MB-231 cells as compared to other complexes. MDA-MB-231 cells treated with C3 (Co) and C5 (Cu) Mg-tartarate complexes also showed inhibition in cell migration.

  1. Nasker, S. S., Ajayan, P. M., & Nayak, S. (2023). Emerging Trends and Future Direction of Graphene Family of Materials as Potential Antimicrobials: A Critical Review. ACS Materials Letters, 5(3), 673-693. DOI: 10.1021/acsmaterialslett.2c01116

Abstract: Graphene research has progressed at an unprecedented rate since 2004 when Novoselov and Geim isolated and described a single sheet of graphene. In fact, the relentless progress in graphene literature over the past decades makes it challenging to diversify research efforts in varied directions. The superior optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of graphene usher in a broad spectrum of applications that attracts the interest of various scientific domains, including material scientists, physicists, chemists, and biologists. These exceptional properties of the graphene family of materials (Gfam) have inspired researchers to explore a cornucopia of potential applications surrounding graphene and its derivatives in the realm of bacterial, fungal, and viral cells. Herein, we provide an exhaustive discussion of the antimicrobial mechanism of Gfam against different pathogen types: bacteria, fungi, and viruses. In addition, we present the physicochemical differences among members of Gfam and the correlation of their germicidal activities to material properties. A comparative analysis of Gfam’s activities pertaining to bare metals and the enhanced broad-spectrum antimicrobial action of graphene family-based nanocomposites as well as surface coatings are also described. The review analyzes and discusses the present constraints and anticipated future directions that would enable graphene-based nanomaterials to advance as high-performance antimicrobial structures. Thus, Gfam as a robust biocidal material of interest can effectively bridge the gap between academia and industry.


  1. Mitra, T., Mahapatra, S. S., Mishra, B., Panda, V. K., Malhotra, D., Roychowdhury, A., Kundu G.C., Hypoxia in Cancer: Significance and Impact on Cancer Therapy. Springer Nature Singapore.
  1. Adebo, O. A., Chinma, C. E., Obadina, A. O., Soares, A. G., Panda, S. K., & Gan, R. Y.  (Eds.) (2023). Indigenous Fermented Foods for the Tropics. Academic Press, USA.
  1. Sahu, S., Parija, T., Panda, S.K. (2023). Starter cultures: an insight into specific applications in flavoring and health promotion. In Adebo, O. A., Chinma, C. E., Obadina, A. O., Soares, A. G., Panda, S. K., & Gan, R. Y.  (Eds.). Indigenous Fermented Foods for the Tropics. Academic Press, USA, 409-418.


  1. Dr. Bandana Panda, Dr. Gaurav Patri, Dr. Chanakya Nath Kundu, Mr. Biswajit Das. Patent title: A novel application of I -PRF for human dental pulp stem cells proliferation. (India Patent Application no. 202331016204)

Abstract: The present invention relates to a preparation of traditional Indian herbal powder for dental care and its evaluations. Standardization of tooth powder were done by testing pH, tapped density, ash values, moisture content, phytochemical screening, microbial contamination. The herbs used in the powder may contain secondary plant metabolites, so the developed combination may prove efficient for dental care and the various therapeutic uses. Preparation method was simple and cost- effective. The prepared combination is efficient in curing the yellow teeth, dental caries, and gingivitis. The dental care powder is recommended to use infants, i.e the powder is high in safety and free of side effects.


Title of the Sanctioned Project: Quinacrine inhibits metastasis and angiogenesis in oral cancer stem cells through the inhibition of tumour-associated macrophages derived inflammatory cytokines

Principal Investigator’s Name: Prof. Chanakya Nath Kundu

Co-Principal Investigator’s Name: Dr. Tithi Parija

Name of Funding Agency: Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Govt. of India

Abstract of the Project:

Oral cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in men and women. The progression of this cancer is associated with inflammation via the secretion of various cytokines. Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME), secrete multiple cytokines, which amplifies tumor aggressiveness through invasion, progression, and metastasis. Although multiple chemotherapeutic drugs have been developed to reduce the tumor growth by depleting the TAMs derived cytokines but these drugs are associated with many drawbacks. Drug resistance, toxicity and requirement of higher doses and are the major issues in clinic. Quinacrine (QC) is a well-known anti-cancer agent, which exhibits various pharmacological properties and anti-cancer potentiality against many cancers. Till now, no study shows the anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic potential of QC in patient derived TME through cytokines dependent phenomena. Herein, we will systematically study the potentiality of cytokines for the formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in patient derived oral cancer cells and evaluated the mechanism of QC mediated-reduction of CSCs properties in cells. To address this issue, cytokines-enriched conditioned medium (CM) will be generated by treating fixed doses of PMA and LPS in co-cultured of SCC-9+THP-1 cells. A CSCs populated environment will be created after addition of cytokine enriched-CM to patient derived primary oral cancer cells. After incubation with CM, induction of inflammation, CSCs growth, metastasis and angiogenesis will be found. QC will reduce the metastasis and angiogenesis by inhibition of inflammatory process through reduction of cytokines in patient derived CSCs.


Student’s Name:  Dr. Soumya Prakash Biswal

Dr. Soumya Prakash Biswal

Supervisor’s Name: Dr Raghavendra Samantaray, Assistant Professor, School of Biotechnology, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar.

Co-Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Rojalin Sahu, Associate Professor, School of Applied Sciences, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar. 

Thesis Title: Design and Synthesis of Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) and Metal Complexes for Optical, Catalytic, and Biomedical applications.

Abstract of the Thesis:

With a goal to realise the application potentials of hybrid Metal Organic frameworks (MOFs)in the field of catalytic, environmental and biological research, we have synthesised a seriesof MOFs and critically analysed their structure-function relationship. Briefly, MOF hybridsare a blend of organic and inorganic materials with a crystalline and porous structure. InMOFs, organic linker molecules surround the positively arranged metal ions or clusters.Owing to their higher surface area, porous nature, and post-synthesis modification (PSM)potential in the last decades, MOFs have been extensively used in separation, adsorption,sensing, bio-medical, and environmental applications. We considered synthesising robustUiO-66 MOFs series and perform PSM on them to evaluate their structural diversity and theunderlying optical behavior. The Uio-66 MOF and its PSM with various anhydrides ((Maleic,Acetic, Valeric, Phthalic, and 2,3-Diphenylmaleic (stilbene)) were synthesised viahydrothermal process and characterized by a range of imaging and spectroscopic techniquessuch as diffused reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy, Powder X-ray Diffraction, ScanningElectron Microscopy imaging, and Transmission Electron Microscopy imaging. The PSM onUiO-66 series, indeed, revealed new optical absorptions in these modified frameworks, andthe new optical absorptions are critically analysed by both experiments and theory (DFTcalculations) from the view point of Electron Withdrawing (EWG) and Electron DonatingGroup (EDG) behavior of the added functionalities in the UiO-66. Apart from these noveloptical variations in UiO-66 series, we assumed the catalytic potentiality in theseframeworks. Upon undertaking the catalytic study, UiO-66 proved themselves as excellentcatalyst for the model hydrogenation reduction of 4-Nitro Phenol (4-NP) to 4-Amino Phenol(4-AP), where NaBH 4 was used as a reducer. The study results implicate excellent catalyticbehaviour of UiO-66 due to the Lewis acid nature at metal nodes and larger surface area. Themost interesting finding of the study was the excellent recyclability ability of UiO-66confirmed by repetitive consecutive use in our study. We have also developed nano-composite of metal oxides for exploring their diverse applications, such as catalyst action andbiological activities. Overall, the current study encompasses synthesis, characterisation, bio-informatics structural elucidation, and application studies giving a rich insight into the Metal-Organic Framework and Nano-composites developments.

Student’s Name:  Dr. Bipasa Kar

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Debdutta Bhattacharya, Scientist-D, ICMR – Regional Medical Research Center, Bhubaneswar.

Co-Supervisor’s Name: Dr. C.N.Kundu, Professor Research Dean, School of Biotechnology, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. 

Thesis Title:Identification of phyto – compounds as antimicrobials against beta-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacteria: in silico, in vitro study.

Abstract of the Thesis:

Over the past few years antimicrobial resistance is a huge concern. In the prime threat pathogen list, beta-lactamase producing gram-negative pathogens takes the top position. To tackle this antimicrobial resistance, both epidemiological study and drug discovery are important. Here we have screened bacterial clinical isolates from NE India and performed a prevalence study for beta-lactamase genes. This study showed that, 38% were only ESBL producers and 24% were only MBL producers in those regions. Next we selected CTX-M-3, CTX-M-15, NDM-1 and VIM-1 as representatives for searching alternative drugs. We have performed molecular docking and pharmacokinetic property screening to select best phyto-compounds. Next we selected four compounds against CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15 proteins and four against NDM-1, VIM-1 protein. Among the best phyto-compounds silibinin against CTX-M proteins and hesperetin against NDM-1, VIM-1 proteins showed highest binding affinity, stability throughout the MD run. Next, the compounds were purchased to screen theirin vitro anti-bacterial effects. The compounds alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics acted as expected. Anti-bacterial assay revealed the compounds are bactericidal in nature. Both the compounds showed significant beta-lactamase inhibitory activity. Thus, both in silico and in vitro study confirmed the beta-lactamase inhibitory activity of silibinin and hesperetin and they both can be further promoted for in vivo clinical trials. 

Student’s Name:  Dr. Akashi

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Sam J Mathew, Associate Professor, Regional Centre for Biotechnology, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana 

Co-Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Mrutyunjay Suar, Professor and Director General R&D KIIT, School of Biotechnology, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.

Thesis Title: Characterization of the role of Myosin Heavy chains (MyHCs) in Mammalian Ske letal Muscle Development and Disease.

Dr. Akashi

Abstract of the Thesis:

Skeletal muscle contractility is essential for fundamental functions such as posture maintenance, locomotion and metabolic homeostasis. Interaction between the actin and myosin filaments of the functional unit of muscle, the sarcomere, is responsible for the contraction. Muscle myosins are hexameric ATPase dependent motors comprising one pair of myosin heavy chains (MyHCs) and two pairs of myosin light chains. Apart from the MyHC isoforms expressed in adult muscle fibers, three developmental MyHC isoforms, namely, MyHC-embryonic, MyHC-slow and MyHC-perinatal are expressed during embryonic development and muscle regeneration. Mutations in genes encoding these developmental MyHCs have been reported to lead to several myopathies, cardiomyopathies and contracture syndromes, suggesting their crucial role in embryonicdevelopment. However, the precise function of these developmental isoforms is not clear. Therefore, we have investigated the functional significance of MyHC-embryonic, -slow and perinatal using in-vitro and in-vivo models of myogenic differentiation. Using Myh3 loss of function mice, we found that the lack of MyHC-embryonic leads to mis-regulation of other MyHCs, alterations in fiber size, fiber number and fiber type at neonatal stages. We also find that loss of MyHC-embryonic leads to mis-regulation of genes involved in muscle differentiation. Interestingly, the loss of MyHC-embryonic has distinct effects on different muscles, possibly reflecting the unique fiber type composition of different muscles. Most significantly, our results indicate that MyHC-embryonic is required during embryonic and fetal myogenesis to regulate myogenic progenitors and myoblastdifferentiation through paracrine signaling. Using C2C12 mouse myoblasts cell line as an in-vitro model of myogenic differentiation, we find that loss of MyHC-perinatal leads to altered expression dynamics of transcription factors regulating myogenesis, precocious differentiation of myoblasts by activating caspase3-mediated differentiation program, cellular metabolism shifts towards glycolytic type and non-cell autonomous regulation of myoblasts and muscle precursors. Remarkably, siRNA mediated knockdown of MyHC-embryonic or MyHC-perinatal results in distinct effects on MyHC expression. Absence of MyHC-embryonic leads to compensatory upregulation of MyHC-slow isoform, a slow muscle specific isoform. However, MyHC-perinatal knockdown results in compensatory upregulation of MyHC-IIb isoform, a fast muscle specific isoform. This indicates both MyHC-embryonic and MyHC-perinatal have specific roles in the regulation of MyHC isoform expression. We have also investigated the crucial role of MyHC-perinatal in muscle regeneration post injury. Our work suggests that the knockdown of MyHC-perinatal in regenerating muscle leads to alterations in fiber morphology, reduction in adult muscle stem cell numbers and induces fibrosis at 5 days post injury. Preliminary experiments of the MyHC-slow specific knockdown during C2C12 myogenic differentiation have not shown significant effects on the expression dynamics of myogenic regulatory factors. Overall, our data reveals the crucial roles of developmental MyHC isoforms in proper muscle formation.

Student’s Name: Dr. Aniruddha Das

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Amaresh C. Panda, Scientist-D, Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.

Co-Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Selvakumar Elangovan, Associate Professor, School of Biotechnology, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.  

Thesis Title:Identification and characterization of circular RNA splice variants.

Abstract of the Thesis:

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of RNA molecules with regulatory functions. Circular RNAs are covalently closed RNA molecules generated by a process known as backsplicing. CircRNAs with no free ends make them a very stable form of RNA resistant to exonuclease degradation. Circular RNAs have also been shown to play a role in several disease conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and neurological disorders. CircRNAs affect cellular pathways through miRNA sponging or RBP sponging activity or by translating into protein. These functions primarily depend on the circRNA sequence, which accounts for its association with miRNAs/RBPs and determines their translation into proteins.

The unique chimeric backsplice junction gives a unique feature to circRNAs, separating them from their linear counterpart and essential for their detection and quantification. Recent advances in high-throughput RNA sequence strategies involving circRNA enrichment followed by sequencing could detect and quantify these circular RNAs with higher accuracy. However, it is technically challenging and error-prone to derive the full-length sequence of circRNA splice variants from RNA sequencing due to their low abundance, similarity with linear mRNA counterpart, and alternative splicing. Since circRNA sequence determines the function of circRNA, it becomes increasingly important to devise a method for accurate and efficient identification of the full-length sequence of circRNA and the function of circRNA splice variants in a given cell.

In this study, we sought to develop a method where total RNA was enriched for circRNA using RNase R exonuclease treatment followed by rolling-circle cDNA synthesis using H-minus reverse transcriptase resulting in tandem repeats of circRNA cDNA. First, the full-length cDNA was PCR amplified using one primer over the unique backspliced junction region and the reverse primer immediately upstream of the forward primer. These full-length PCR products were then resolved on an agarose gel followed by Sanger sequencing to reveal the different splice variants of circRNAs. Furthermore, we identified that the differential association of miRNAs and RBPs with different circRNA sequences leads to altered regulation of genes that eventually affect the regulation of various cellular processes.
In addition, the computational analysis identified altered open reading frames (ORFs) in circRNA splice variants. Furthermore, several circRNAs in HeLa cells were predicted to be translated into peptides spanning backsplice junctions and were supported by mass spectrometry analysis. Further, polyribosome analysis followed by quantitative-PCR confirmed the association of a subset of circRNAs with polyribosome supporting their protein-coding potential. Finally, bioinformatics analysis of proteins derived from splice variants of circASPH, circCORO1C, circASXL1, and circZNF148 suggested altered domains and structures which could have different physiological functions. However, further studies are required to explore the physiological functions of these novel proteins identified here. Together, our study identified novel protein isoforms translated from circRNAs which may regulate different physiological processes.

Student’s Name: Dr. Gyan Prakash Mishra

Supervisor’s Name:Dr. Sunil K Raghav, Scientist-F, DBT – Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. 

Co-Supervisor’s Name:Dr.Bhawna Gupta, Associate Professor, School of Biotechnology, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. 

Thesis Title: A multi-omics approach to understand the host response upon pathogen infection.

Abstract of the Thesis:

Pathogen infection such as bacterial or viral in both human and mice elicit host response through activation of cross-antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs). DCs generate various immune responses and also educate naive T cells to differentiate into effector T cells to clear the pathogen. Transcription of immune response genes in these DCs is tightly controlled to maintain the balance between multiple immune responses such as inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and antiviral. However, how these responses are regulated at the molecular level through epigenetic regulation of gene expression is largely unknown. To understand DCs response against bacteria or viruses, here in this study, we focused on the murine conventional type -I dendritic cells (cDC1) activated with various Toll-like receptors (TLR) that recognize pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMPs) associated with bacteria or viruses. We utilized the multi-omics approach to capture the transcriptome and genome wide enhancer activity through RNA-seq and H3K27ac ChIP-seq respectively in TLR9, TLR3 stimulation conditions. To understand the epigenetic control of various immune responses in cDC1, we focused on the global co-repressor protein NCoR1. We integrated genome-wide binding of NCoR1 using ChIP-seq in TLR activation condition along with RNA-seq and H3K27ac ChIP-seq in NCoR1 depleted condition to understand the overall impact on enhancer activity and gene expression upon TLR activation. Comprehensive analysis of the multi-omics datasets revealed spatio-temporal activity of TLR9 and TLR3 specific enhancers. Moreover, NCoR1 depletion increased enhancer activity and expression of genes belonging to inflammatory, anti-inflammatory as well as antiviral response in TLR9 activation whereas TLR3 showed decreased enhancer activity and expression of antiviral genes. The differential effect of NCoR1 in TLR3 versus TLR9, we mapped several publicly available ChIP-seq datasets. We found IRF3, an important transcription factor under TLR3 activation, showed decreased phosphorylation as well as binding at key enhancer regions of important antiviral genes. Furthermore, the decreased transcription of antiviral genes after NCoR1 knock-down translated into expected increase in Sendai virus (SeV) load. Overall, our study showed that the role of NCoR1 as corepressor is biased or skewed towards TLR9 as compared to TLR3.

During the analysis of multi-omics datasets that we generated from NGS experiments, a large number of genomic regions, such as transcription factor binding sites, chromatin marks were identified and the overlap of these genomics regions were performed to answer a variety of biological questions. Although several command-line tools are available to perform such an analysis, we observed there is a notable lack of an integrated web server application to perform genomic region intersections, generate publication-ready plots and perform functional annotation. Hence to address this gap, in this study we also developed a comprehensive and user-friendly web server application called BedSect.

Another host response particularly against RNA viruses is through molecular editing by host deaminase enzymes such as APOBEC and ADAR proteins. APOBEC and ADAR lead to C-to-T/G-to-A and A-to-G/T-to-C transition respectively. To understand the role of RNA editing, we studied the transcriptome of SARS-Cov2 virus isolated from 246 COVID-19 positive patients in India till Jun’ 2020 and 1106 samples between Nov’ 20 to May 2021. We performed intra-host variability (iSNV) analysis to identify mutations in the viral genome and found a skewed distribution of APOBEC and ADAR specific mutations compared to other mutations. Interestingly, many samples carried iSNVs at positions which defined the B.1 lineage and the India specific B.6 lineage. We further confirmed RNA editing in SARS-CoV2 viral genome by an observed high and constitutive ADARB1 expression in SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero cells. Further, we observed significant accumulation of iSNVs in Vero cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 from 11 samples at the seventh-passage compared to the original viral isolate. Overall, our study indicates that the host response to virus infection through RNA editing may lead to accumulation of variants in spatio-temporal scales and that might increase the fitness of the strains by influencing its virulence, infectivity or transmissibility that may be both beneficial or detrimental to the virus.

In summary, we employed the state-of-the-art multi-omics approach to understand the host response upon pathogen infection in murine dendritic cells and humans infected with SARS-CoV2 virus. Our study deciphered several molecular mechanisms such as epigenetic and RNA editing regulation as a host response toward pathogen infection.

Student’s Name:  Dr. Madhurima Chatterjee

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Gopal Chowdhary, Associate Professor, School of Biotechnology, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Co-Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Uma Rao, Former Head, Division of Nematology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, PUSA, New Delhi

Thesis Title: Exogenous and host-mediated RNAi gene silencing of functionally different genes in spotted pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

Dr. Madhurima Chatterjee

Abstract of the Thesis:

The productivity of grain legumes is critically constrained due to several biotic and abiotic stresses resulting tremendous yield and economic losses every year worldwide. The larval stages of Lepidopteran spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata is one of the most serious herbivores damaging more than 50% of annual pigeonpea production by attacking various parts of the plant including flowers and pods. Moreover, synthetic insecticide resistance has become the major limitation in managing these insect pests. In this study, the possibility of gene silencing is exhibited in M. vitrata through exogenous administration of target gene specific dsRNA and also host-delivered RNAi in pigeonpea.
To begin with, an array of functionally important genes, associated with the midgut, chemosensory, cell signalling and development, named Serine Protease 33 (SP33), H+ transporting ATP synthase delta subunit (HTAS), Triosephosphate Isomerse (TIM), Acyl-CoA delta-9 desaturase (ACCOA), Glutamate Receptor Ionotropic, Kainate 2-like (GLUR), Cadherin-like protein (CDH), non-visual Arrestin (ARR2) were selected to standardize efficient dsRNA delivery strategy. The study could establish the effect of gene silencing in M. vitrata through haemolymph injection as well as ingestion. Efficient transcript perturbation of target genes, higher transcript accumulation of key RNAi pathway gene DICER and detection of siRNA in dsRNA injected larvae authenticated successful gene silencing in M. vitrata. Also, identification of inhibitor molecules like morpholine, piperidine, carboxamide and piperidine–carboxamide through in silico analysis for blocking the function of SP33 established the utility of functional genomics.
The second part of the research work deals with the successful demonstration of gene silencing in M. vitrata through host-delivered RNAi (HDRNAi) in the highly recalcitrant pigeonpea for three functionally different target genes, Alpha-amylase (α-amylase), Chymotrypsin-like serine protease (CTLP) and Tropomyosin (TPM). In continuation of the first part showing the effect of gene silencing by haemolymph injection, the onset of HDRNAi has been validated in pigeonpea by introducing RNAi-hairpin constructs of the three selected target genes using shoot apical meristem-targeted in planta transformation strategy. Evaluation of transgenic events at plant level bioassays revealed reduced insect feeding as well as larval mortality compared to the wild type control plants. Additionally, molecular evidences for down regulation of the target genes in the insects that fed on the respective transgenic plants further authenticated successful HDRNAi.


Name of the Faculty: Prof. Gopal C. Kundu

Title of the Award: Fellow of The Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC)

Award Received: Name of the Agency Royal Society of Chemistry, Place United Kingdom

About the Award:

Prof. Gopal C. Kundu, Director (R&D), KIIT Deemed to be University (KIIT DU), Professor, KIIT School of Biotechnology, and Professor, Medicine and Molecular Research, KIMS has recently been admitted to a prestigious Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC), a professional society based in the United Kingdom for his outstanding contribution in the area of drug discovery and breast cancer research. This Society with over 55,000 members across the world is an internationally renowned not-for-profit publishing and knowledge business, and has a reputation as an influential champion for the Chemical Sciences.

Through the ‘Leaders in the Field’ scheme, the Society identifies outstanding individuals in the chemical science community. Fellows of the RSC have the opportunity to channel their expertise and commitment to promoting the value of chemistry and chemical biology, through the international framework of the Society. The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) was established in 1841. RSC partners with industry and academia, advises governments on policy, and promotes the talent, collaboration, innovation, information and ideas that lead to great advances in science

Name of the Faculty: Dr K Sony Reddy

Title of the Award: INSA Medal for Young Scientists 2022

Award Received: Honorarium of INR 1,00,000

Name of the Agency: Indian National Science Academy, DST, Place: New Delhi

About the Award:

The Indian National Science Academy (INSA), established in 1935 with the objective to promote science in India and harness scientific knowledge for human and national welfare. Indian National Science Academy (INSA), New Delhi is an autonomous institution of Dept. Science & Technology, Govt. of India. It is recognized by the Government of India, as a Premier National Scientific Society. A Government of India’s decision in 1968 has mandated INSA to represent India in all the international science fora. It also publishes journals, holds scientific conferences, and publishes proceedings and monographs. To encourage the pursuit of excellence in the field of ‘Science and Technology,’ the academy established four categories of awards: International Awards, General Medal & Lecture Awards, Subject-wise Medals/Lectures, and Awards for Young Scientists.
The INSA Young Scientist Award, instituted in 1974, is considered as the highest recognition of promise, creativity and excellence. The award is made annually to the individuals below the age of 40 years, and being distinguished for these attributes. The research carried out in India by the nominees is been taken into consideration for the award. In 2022, 4 scientists (including Dr. K Sony Reddy), working in the field of Health Sciences throughout India, have been awarded.


Name of the Student: Saptarshi Sinha

Title of the Award: Research Excellence Award 2022

Award Received: Institute of Scholars (InSc), India

Sanctioned Amount of Project or Award: Not applicable

About the Award:

Research Excellence Award 2022 for the research work titled “Olaparib enhances the Resveratrol-mediated Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells by inhibiting the Homologous Recombination Repair pathway”, published in Experimental Cell Research, Elsevier.

Although sensitization of BRCA-mutated, homologous recombination (HR)-deficient breast cancer cells through PARP inhibitor is widely studied, not much is known about the treatment of BRCA-wild-type, HR-proficient breast cancer. Our aim was to investigate whether a natural bioactive compound, Resveratrol (RES), can induce DNA double-strand breaks in HR-proficient breast cancer cells and Olaparib (OLA), a PARP inhibitor, can enhance the RES-mediated apoptosis by deregulating the HR repair pathway. The detailed mechanism of anti-cancer action of RES+OLA combination in breast cancer has been evaluated using in vitro (MCF-7 and T47D cell lines), ex vivo (patient-derived primary breast cancer cells), and in vivo (xenograft mice) preclinical model systems. OLA increased RES-mediated DNA damage, downregulated the HR proteins, caused a late S/G2 arrest, enhanced apoptosis and cell death in RES pre-treated breast cancer cells at much lower concentrations than their individual treatments. Direct measurement of HR pathway activity using a GFP plasmid-based assay demonstrated reduced HR efficiency in I-SceI endonuclease-transfected cells treated with OLA. Moreover, RES+OLA treatment also caused significant reduction in PARP1-mediated PARylation and efficiently trapped PARP1 at the DNA damage site. Upon RES treatment, PARylated PARP1 was found to interact with BRCA1, which then activated other HR proteins. But after addition of OLA in RES pre-treated cells, PARP1 could not interact with BRCA1 due to inhibition of PARylation. This resulted in deregulation of HR pathway. To further confirm the role of BRCA1 in PARP1-mediated HR pathway activation, BRCA1 was knocked down that caused complete inhibition of HR pathway activity, and further enhanced apoptosis after RES+OLA treatment in BRCA1-silenced cells. In agreement with in vitro data, similar experimental results were obtained in ex vivo patient-derived breast cancer cells and in vivo xenograft mice. Thus, RES+OLA combination treatment enhanced breast cancer cell death by causing excessive DNA damage and also by simultaneously inhibiting the HR pathway.

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School of Law (Oct – Dec 2022) Thu, 05 Jan 2023 14:49:00 +0000 KIIT School of Law

Journal Papers 1. Pattjoshi, S., & Ghosh, P. (2022). Third party funding for litigation in dispute resolution mechanism and its recent developments in international commercial arbitration, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering ISSN: 0974-5823; Vol. 07, Issue 6, Jun 2022, pg. 538. 2. Pattjoshi, S., & Ghosh, P. (2021) Critical appraisal of third-party funding in India, […]

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KIIT School of Law

Journal Papers

1. Pattjoshi, S., & Ghosh, P. (2022). Third party funding for litigation in dispute resolution mechanism and its recent developments in international commercial arbitration, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering ISSN: 0974-5823; Vol. 07, Issue 6, Jun 2022, pg. 538.

2. Pattjoshi, S., & Ghosh, P. (2021) Critical appraisal of third-party funding in India, Psychology and Education (2021) 58(1): 3462-3467, ISSN: 00333077.

3. Pattjoshi, S., & Ghosh, P. (2021) Footprint of TPF entities in trade liberalization and international commercial dispute resolution mechanism with reference to india, Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry (TOJQI), ISSN:1309-6591; Vol. 12, Issue 6 July 2021 Pg. 9753-9758.

4. Pattjoshi, S. (2022) Third party funding mechanism and judicial attitudes and responses in international commercial arbitration, Industrial Engineering Journal, Volume 15 Issue 11  October 2022 ISSN: 0970-2555.

Conference Papers

1. Pattjoshi, S., & Ghosh, P. (2021) Critical Appraisal of Third Party Funding In India,  presented paper at 8th International Online Conference on Recent Advancements in Interdisciplinary Research (ICRAIR 2021) held on 30-31 January 2021 at Asian Institute of Technology Conference Center, Pathumthani, Thailand.

2. Pattjoshi, S., & Ghosh, P. (2021) Footprint of TPF entities in Trade Liberalization and International Commercial Dispute Resolution Mechanism with Reference to India, presented at “4th International Conference on Multi-Disciplinary Research Studies and Education (ICMDRSE-2021)  held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on the 29th – 30th June 2021.

Ph.D. Degree Awarded (Provisional)

Student’s Name: Dr. Seemasmiti Pattjoshi

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Puranjoy Ghosh

Thesis Title:  The Third Party Funding in International Commercial Arbitration- A Study with Reference to India.

Abstract of the Thesis:

Third-party funding in International Commercial Arbitration is one of the most contemporaneous and controversial issue in the normative framework in India. The last several years have witnessed increasing involvement of Third Party Funders in International Commercial Arbitration proceedings. Third-party funding has been considered as one of the means of access to justice for those who have a credible claim but no financial means to pursue it. Dispute resolution in India tends to be a cost-heavy proposition for the parties involved. The present discussion highlights the judicial attitudes and responses regarding TPF (Third Party Funding) from the delivery of procedural and substantive justice as well as suggesting legal and jurisprudential grounds in third party funding governance all across the world. It also points out that all the principles and appraisal of TPF which will ultimately contribute in delivering justice in both national and international commercial arbitration if third party funding is left to self-governance.

Keywords: Third party funding, justice, access to justice, international commercial arbitration

Student’s Name: Dr. J Bagchi

Supervisor’s Name: Prof (Dr.) Sasmita Samanta, Vice Chancellor,KIIT University

Co-Supervisor’s Name: Dr Amarendra Pattnaik, School of Law, KIIT University

Thesis Title: Talent Analytics – an In-Depth Study of its Impact on Employee Retention

Abstract of the Thesis:

Among all the resources that an organization needs to achieve its objectives, Human Resource is the most critical. Traditionally considered just as a factor of production, today human resource has become the prime mover of best organizations. Every employee is a bouquet of competencies or talents. Therefore, many organizations consider Human Resource Management as Talent Management.

In this research, the researcher has attempted to find out if there is a correlation between Talent Analytic in an organization and Employee Retention. Talent Analytic essentially means the processes, methods and technologies that are used to manage various HR functions in an organization. Data-driven decision making and data-analytic is sub-sets of Talent Analytics system. Opposite of employee retention is employee attrition. Every organization wishes to retain their best employees and don’t like employee attrition. Organizations adopt various initiatives to keep a tab on employee attrition. Employees look for a range of factors to continue working with an organization like salary, work culture, opportunity to learn, leadership, job content, opportunity of career advancement etc. One of the factors that employees also look at is the decision making process in the organization. They try to check whether the decisions are based on facts or not. They expect all decisions to be fair and transparent and here comes the role of Talent Analytics. The use of such a system helps in proper decision making and in also influences employees’ satisfaction.

Decision can be taken in different forms such as – Intuition, Rational and Bounded Rational. In Intuition method, the decision maker decides without considering data or information on the subject. It is based on experience and gut feeling. In the rational decision making, a decision maker considers all relevant data for making decisions. Such decisions are based on logic and data analysis. The third type of decision making is based on limited available information or data and is called bounded rational decision making. Managers are sometimes constrained to take decisions based on whatever information that is available.

As Talent Analytics is a data driven method of decision making and can positively impact various facets of Talent Management – Recruitment, Training & Development, Retention, Career advancement, Redeployment. Now a day’s high-end software are available to integrate employee related information available at different units/departments of the organization. ERP is one such software from leading companies like SAP, TCS, Oracle, Infosys.

Many organizations are able to use historical data to predict future outcomes. For example, an employee frequently visiting job sites is an indication that he will leave the organization as soon as he gets a better opportunity. Similarly, an employee with high number of unaddressed professional grievances may leave the organization.

Now, if an organization has good Talent Aanalytics in place, they can mining of such information can  preventive them to leave the organization.. Talent is scarce and an organization spends huge amount of money to get right talent. Losing such latent adversely affects an organization and hence retaining talent is important.

In this research, the researcher looks at retention dimension of talent management. The researcher would like to see if the existence of Talent Analytic system and its proper implementation has a positive effect on employee retention or not.

The researcher collected responses about the utility of Talent Analytics from more than 500 employees working in manufacturing and service sector. All these respondents belong to Odisha, West Bengal and Bihar. On analysis of data it was found that a large majority of respondents think that Talent Analytics helps in employee retention. But when the researcher tried to find out if there is a correlation between the availability of Talent Analytics System in the organization where a respondent works and his retention intention, there no significant correlation. The researcher considered the retention intention at two levels – (i) Those who wish to continue with their current organization for more than 2 years (ii) Those who wish to continue with their current organization for more than 4 years. In neither of the above levels, the researcher noticed a clear relationship. It means while Talent Analytics is considered useful in manpower management and decision making, but it has no impact on employee retention.

Student’s Name: Dr. Mitul Dutta

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Prafulla Chandra Mishra, School of Law

Thesis Title: Right To Self Determination In International Law: A Study In Human Right Perspective

Abstract of the Thesis:

Recently the world witnessed the crisis in Ukraine. The south-eastern region of Ukraine or the larger Donbas region, two territories, namely, Luhansk and Donetsk which were controlled by the pro-Russia rebel groups, demanding self-determination for several years. The territories of Luhansk and Donetsk declared independence, and Russian President Vladimir Putin recognized the territories as independent sovereigns and deployed military forces to maintain peace of those regions. Now, the question that arises here is, whether the self-determination claims and the subsequent secession and annexation by Russia justified under international law.

Self-determination consists of one of the most disputed areas of international law. This right is a precursor to some of the most disputed instances of secession in the world today. Most of these claims often escalate to armed conflicts and cause a lot of loss of life and property and thereby disturbing the international peace and security.

At present there is not distinct clarity about the nature of right, the mode of its implementation of the right and the consequences and status of entities borne out of self-determination. Unfortunately, even judicial decisions do not provide much guidance in this regard. The ICJ’s decision on Kosovo is one such example.

This thesis is an attempt to analyse the scope of the right to self-determination in international law explore the issues connected with it. The thesis seeks to analyse the interrelationship between self-determination and secession and their human rights implication. The thesis also takes up for discussion the status of the seceding entities in international law.

Keywords: Self-Determination, Sovereignty, Secession, Unilateral Declaration of Independence, Recognition.

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School of Biotechnology (Oct – Dec 2022) Thu, 05 Jan 2023 14:27:18 +0000 KIIT School Of Biotechnology

JOURNAL ARTICLES 1. Pradhan, R., Paul, S., Das, B., Sinha, S., Dash, S. R., Mandal, M., & Kundu, C. N. (2022). Resveratrol Nanoparticle attenuates metastasis and angiogenesis by deregulating inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of CAFs in oral cancer by CXCL-12/IL-6 dependent pathway. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 109257. Abstract: Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are […]

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KIIT School Of Biotechnology


1. Pradhan, R., Paul, S., Das, B., Sinha, S., Dash, S. R., Mandal, M., & Kundu, C. N. (2022). Resveratrol Nanoparticle attenuates metastasis and angiogenesis by deregulating inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of CAFs in oral cancer by CXCL-12/IL-6 dependent pathway. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 109257.

Abstract: Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are one of the highly abundant components in the tumor microenvironment (TME). They secrete several cytokines, which amplified tumor progression, invasion, stemness, metastasis and angiogenesis. Here, we evaluate the potentiality of cytokines for the formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in oral cancer cells niche and investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effect of Resveratrol-nanoparticle (Res-NP). We first differentiated quiescent human fibroblasts into CAFs in vitro in response to PDGF-B and TGF-β stimulation and these CAFs were found to increase CXCL-12 and IL-6 secretion. CSCs enriched population was created by incubating H-357 cells with CAFs and cytokine-enriched CAFs-conditioned media (CAFs-CM). Likewise, CSCs-populated environment was also generated after incubating CAFs-CM to patient-derived primary oral cancer cells. It was noted that CXCL-12 and IL-6 secreted from CAFs significantly promoted CSCs growth, proliferation, aggressiveness, metastasis and angiogenesis. However, Res-NP reduced CSCs growth and proliferation by abrogating the secretion of CXCL-12 and IL-6. A significant decrease in the expression of metastatic and angiogenic markers, in ovo blood vascularization, intracellular NO generation, MMPs expression and tube formation was found upon Res-NP treatment. Reduction of representative CSCs and angiogenesis markers were also noted after Res-NP treatment in xenograft mice model. CXCL-12 physically interact with IL-6 and this interaction was diminished after Res-NP treatment. Moreover, the expression of CD133 and VEGF-A were downregulated either on Res-NP or CXCL-12/IL-6 specific inhibitors treated CSCs-enriched cells. Thus, the data suggest that CSCs growth is CXCL-12 and IL-6 dependent and Res-NP obstruct carcinogenesis and metastasis by inhibiting CXCL-12 and IL-6 production in in vitro, in vivo, in ovo and ex vivo systems.

2. Nayak, D., Paul, S., Das, C., Bhal, S., & Kundu, C. N. (2022). Quinacrine and Curcumin in combination decreased the breast cancer angiogenesis by modulating ABCG2 via VEGF A. Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling.

Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) cause drug resistance in cancer due to its extensive drug efflux, DNA repair and self-renewal capability. ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) efflux pump afford protection to CSCs in tumors, shielding them from the adverse effects of chemotherapy. Although the role of ABCG2 in cancer progression, invasiveness, recurrence are known but its role in metastasis and angiogenesis are not clear. Here, using in vitro (CSCs enriched side population [SP] cells), ex vivo (patient derived primary cells), in ovo (fertilized egg embryo) and in vivo (patient derived primary tissue mediated xenograft (PDX)) system, we have systematically studied the role of ABCG2 in angiogenesis and the regulation of the process by Curcumin (Cur) and Quinacrine (QC). Cur + QC inhibited the proliferation, invasion, migration and expression of representative markers of metastasis and angiogenesis. Following hypoxia, ABCG2 enriched cells released angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF A) and induced the angiogenesis via PI3K-Akt-eNOS cascade. Cur + QC inhibited the ABCG2 expression and thus reduced the angiogenesis. Interestingly, overexpression of ABCG2 in SP cells and incubation of purified ABCG2 protein in media induced the angiogenesis but knockdown of ABCG2 decreased the vascularization. In agreement with in vitro results, ex vivo data showed similar phenomena. An induction of vascularization was noticed in PDX mice but reduction of vascularization was also observed after treatment of Cur + QC. Thus, data suggested that in hypoxia, ABCG2 enhances the production of angiogenesis factor VEGF A which in turn induced angiogenesis and Cur + QC inhibited the process by inhibiting ABCG2 in breast cancer.

3. Girma, G., Panda, A.N., Roy, P.C., Ray, L., Mohanty, S & Chowdhary G. (2022). Molecular, biochemical, and comparative genome analysis of a rhizobacterial strain Klebsiella Sp. KBG6.2 imparting salt stress tolerance to Oryza sativa L. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 203, 105066.

Abstract: One-third of global agricultural land is affected by salinity, thereby limiting the, productivity and sustainability of the cropping ecosystem. Rice is a globally important, economical crop but is largely affected by soil salinity, leading to the loss of standing crops. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be a potential solution to this problem by improving soil fertility, tolerance to stress and ultimately enhancing crop yield. However, the usage of PGPR in alleviating stress is limited and requires further investigation. In the current work, a PGPR strain, namely, Klebsiella sp. KBG6.2 was isolated from the rice rhizosphere of salt-affected agricultural fields in Odisha, India., The strain was found to be imparting salt tolerance to rice seedlings grown up to 200 mM of sodium chloride. The rice seedlings when treated with sodium chloride and coinoculated with Klebsiella sp. KBG6.2 showed better germination percentage, biomass, shoot, root length, chlorophyll content, and reducing sugar accumulation. The PGPR treatment also led to a reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as evidenced by reduced ROS scavenging enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase) activities and lower accumulation of the corresponding mRNA as, verified by real time PCR analysis. This was further supported by the reduced, accumulation of malondialdehyde which is an indicator of stress-induced oxidative damage. The genome sequence analysis of Klebsiella sp. KBG6.2 strain revealed, it to contain the required genes responsible for colonization and acclimation during stress conditions. The successful root colonization was further verified by scanning electron microscopy. Further, the obtained PGPR strain could provide saline stress tolerance to rice and serve as bioinoculant for sustainable agriculture in salt-affected areas.

4. Swalsingh, G., Pani, P., & Bal, N.C. (2022). Structural functionality of skeletal muscle mitochondria and its correlation with metabolic diseases. Clinical Science (Lond). 136(24):1851-1871. doi: 10.1042/CS20220636.

Abstract: The skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the mammalian body. Its remarkable ability to swiftly shift its substrate selection allows other organs like the brain to choose their preferred substrate first. Healthy skeletal muscle has a high level of metabolic flexibility, which is reduced in several metabolic diseases, including obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Skeletal muscle health is highly dependent on optimally functioning mitochondria that exist in a highly integrated network with the sarcoplasmic reticulum and sarcolemma. The three major mitochondrial processes: biogenesis, dynamics, and mitophagy, taken together, determine the quality of the mitochondrial network in the muscle. Since muscle health is primarily dependent on mitochondrial status, the mitochondrial processes are very tightly regulated in the skeletal muscle via transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, estrogen-related receptors, nuclear respiratory factor, and Transcription factor A, mitochondrial. Physiological stimuli that enhance muscle energy expenditure, like cold and exercise, also promote a healthy mitochondrial phenotype and muscle health. In contrast, conditions like metabolic disorders, muscle dystrophies, and aging impair the mitochondrial phenotype, which is associated with poor muscle health. Further, exercise training is known to improve muscle health in aged individuals or during the early stages of metabolic disorders. This might suggest that conditions enhancing mitochondrial health can promote muscle health. Therefore, in this review, we take a critical overview of current knowledge about skeletal muscle mitochondria and the regulation of their quality. Also, we have discussed the molecular derailments that happen during various pathophysiological conditions and whether it is an effect or a cause.

5. Singh, T.D., Singh, N.I., Devi, K.M., Meiguilungpou, R., Khongsai, L., Singh, L.S., Bal, N.C., Swapana, N., Singh, C.B., & Singh, T.R. (2022). Planispine A Sensitized Cancer Cells to Cisplatin by Inhibiting the Fanconi Anemia Pathway. Molecules. 27(21):7288. doi: 10.3390/molecules27217288.

Abstract: The use of cisplatin as a chemotherapeutic drug is impeded by the development of drug resistance. Combination therapies of a chemosensitizer for cisplatin have been studied, but with little success, and the search for an effective combination therapy is continuing. Our earlier reports have shown that Zanthoxylum armatum DC. extract enhances the apoptotic effect of cisplatin in cancer cell lines. In this study, we purified and identified the bioactive phytocompound through bio-assay-guided purification, using column chromatography and HPLC. Chemical characterization using NMR and mass spectrometry revealed the compound as planispine A, with molecular structure C25H30O6 and molecular weight, 426.16 g/mol. Planispine A was found to inhibit cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and to sensitize the cancer cells to cisplatin-augmented apoptotic cell death, in a caspase-dependent manner. A combination of planispine A and cisplatin induced S-phase cell cycle arrest, and reduced the expression of survival proteins such as cyclin D1. Interestingly, planispine A inhibits the Fanconi anemia pathway, as shown by reduced FANCD2 foci formation and FANCD2 monoubiquitination, which revealed the molecular mechanism of chemo-sensitization of cancer cells to cisplatin. Evaluation of this combination therapy in cisplatin-resistant tumors may lead to more efficient cisplatin treatment.

6. Pani, S., Dey, S., Pati, B., Senapati, U., & Bal, N.C. (2022). Brown to White Fat Transition Overlap With Skeletal Muscle During Development of Larger Mammals: Is it a Coincidence? Journal of Endocrinology Society. 6(12):bvac151. doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvac151.

Abstract: In mammals, adipose tissues and skeletal muscles (SkMs) play a major role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recent studies point to a possibility of dynamic interplay between these 2 sites during development that has pathophysiological implications. Among adipose depots, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the major energy-utilizing organ with several metabolic features that resemble SkM. Both organs are highly vascularized, innervated, and rich in mitochondria and participate in defining the whole-body metabolic rate. Interestingly, in large mammals BAT depots undergo a striking reduction and concomitant expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT) during postnatal development that shares temporal and molecular overlap with SkM maturation. The correlation between BAT to WAT transition and muscle development is not quite apparent in rodents, the predominantly used animal model. Therefore, the major aim of this article is to highlight this process in mammals with larger body size. The developmental interplay between muscle and BAT is closely intertwined with sexual dimorphism that is greatly influenced by hormones. Recent studies have pointed out that sympathetic inputs also determine the relative recruitment of either of the sites; however, the role of gender in this process has not been studied. Intriguingly, higher BAT content during early postnatal and pubertal periods positively correlates with attainment of better musculature, a key determinant of good health. Further insight into this topic will help in detailing the developmental overlap between the 2 seemingly unrelated tissues (BAT and SkM) and design strategies to target these sites to counter metabolic syndromes.

7. Pani, P., & Bal, N.C. (2022). Avian adjustments to cold and non-shivering thermogenesis: whats, wheres and hows. Biological Reviews. 97(6):2106-2126. doi: 10.1111/brv.12885.

Abstract: Avian cold adaptation is hallmarked by innovative strategies of both heat conservation and thermogenesis. While minimizing heat loss can reduce the thermogenic demands of body temperature maintenance, it cannot eliminate the requirement for thermogenesis. Shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) are the two synergistic mechanisms contributing to endothermy. Birds are of particular interest in studies of NST as they lack brown adipose tissue (BAT), the major organ of NST in mammals. Critical analysis of the existing literature on avian strategies of cold adaptation suggests that skeletal muscle is the principal site of NST. Despite recent progress, isolating the mechanisms involved in avian muscle NST has been difficult as shivering and NST co-exist with its primary locomotory function. Herein, we re-evaluate various proposed molecular bases of avian skeletal muscle NST. Experimental evidence suggests that sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) and ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) are key in avian muscle NST, through their mediation of futile Ca2+ cycling and thermogenesis. More recent studies have shown that SERCA regulation by sarcolipin (SLN) facilitates muscle NST in mammals; however, its role in birds is unclear. Ca2+ signalling in the muscle seems to be common to contraction, shivering and NST, but elucidating its roles will require more precise measurement of local Ca2+ levels inside avian myofibres. The endocrine control of avian muscle NST is still poorly defined. A better understanding of the mechanistic details of avian muscle NST will provide insights into the roles of these processes in regulatory thermogenesis, which could further inform our understanding of the evolution of endothermy among vertebrates.

8. Mandal, D., Patel, P., Verma, S.K., Sahu, B.R., Parija, T. (2022) Proximal discrepancy in intrinsic atomic interaction arrests G2/M phase by inhibiting Cyclin B1/CDK1 to infer molecular and cellular biocompatibility of d-limonene. Scientific Reports. 12(1):1-4. doi:

Abstract: The quest for different natural compounds for different biomedical applications especially in the treatment of cancer is at a high pace with increasing incidence of severity. D-limonene has been portrayed as one of the effective potential candidate centered to the context of breast cancer. The anticipation of its count as an effective biomedical agent required a detailed understanding of their molecular mechanism of biocompatibility. This study elucidates the mechanistic action of D-limonene channelized by the induction of apoptosis for controlling proliferation in breast cancer cells. The possible mechanism was explored through an experimental and computational approach to estimate cell proliferation inhibition, cell cycle phase distribution, apoptosis analysis using a flow cytometry, western blotting and molecular docking. The results showed reduced dose and time-dependent viability of MCF7 cells. The study suggested the arrest of the cell cycle at G2/M phase leading to apoptosis and other discrepancies of molecular activity mediated via significant alteration in protein expression pattern of anti-apoptotic proteins like Cyclin B1 and CDK1. Computational analysis showed firm interaction of D-limonene with Cyclin B1 and CDK1 proteins influencing their structural and functional integrity indicating the mediation of mechanism. This study concluded that D-limonene suppresses the proliferation of breast cancer cells by inducing G2/M phase arrest via deregulation of Cyclin B1/CDK1.

9. Mandal, D., Parija, T. (2022). Anticancer Mechanism of D-limonene: An Updated Review and Therapeutic Possibilities. Current Cancer Therapy Reviews. 2022;18(3):193-201. doi:

Abstract: Background: Despite remarkable advancement in screening, diagnosis, and treatment modalities cancer remains the second leading cause of death globally. Chemoprevention is considered to be a potential strategy for dealing with cancer incidence and mortality. The present demand for a less toxic well-tolerated natural anticancer compound that can be used for chemoprevention has drawn the attention towards D-limonene, which is a monocyclic monoterpene found in citrus oil. In recent years several in vitro and in vivo studies have supported the anticancer potential of D-limonene in various cancers. Although these studies have highlighted its course of action through immune modulation, anti-oxidant activity, apoptosis, autophagy, etc. various scientific pieces of evidence support the fact that it targets multiple pathways to inhibit cancer. Objective: The current review focuses on the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer activity of D-limonene and discusses its potential to be used as a cost-effective chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic drug alone or in combination with other drugs. Methods Scientific databases like Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, PubMed Central etc have been used to review new and recent insights into the anticancer mechanism of D-limonene. Conclusion: In this review, we discussed the overall, significance of the anticancer mechanisms of D-limonene which include modulation of apoptosis, promotion of autophagy and inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. It also inhibits oncogenic signaling molecules and related transcription factors. Additionally, it also acts in combination with other anticancer compounds to inhibit cancer.

10. Panda, C., & Mahapatra, R. K. (2022). An update on cerebral malaria for therapeutic intervention. Molecular biology reports49(11), 10579–10591. doi: 10.1007/s11033-022-07625-5

Abstract: Background: Cerebral malaria is often pronounced as a major life-threatening neurological complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. The complex pathogenic landscape of the parasite and the associated neurological complications are still not elucidated properly. The growing concerns of drug resistant parasite strains along with the failure of anti-malarial drugs to subdue post-recovery neuro-cognitive dysfunctions in cerebral malaria patients have called for a demand to explore novel biomarkers and therapeutic avenues. Due course of the brain infection journey of the parasite, events such as sequestration of infected RBCs, cytoadherence, inflammation, endothelial activation, and blood-brain barrier disruption are considered critical. Methods: In this review, we briefly summarize the diverse pathogenesis of the brain-invading parasite associated with loss of the blood-brain barrier integrity. In addition, we also discuss proteomics, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics strategies to identify an array of new biomarkers and drug candidates. Conclusion: A proper understanding of the parasite biology and mechanism of barrier disruption coupled with emerging state-of-art therapeutic approaches could be helpful to tackle cerebral malaria.

11. Sinha, A., Simnani, F. Z., Singh, D., Nandi, A., Choudhury, A., Patel, P., Jha, E., Chouhan, R. S., Kaushik, N. K., Mishra, Y. K., Panda, P. K., Suar, M., & Verma, S. K. (2022). The translational paradigm of nanobiomaterials: Biological chemistry to modern applications. Materials today. Bio17, 100463. doi: 10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100463

Abstract: Recently nanotechnology has evolved as one of the most revolutionary technologies in the world. It has now become a multi-trillion-dollar business that covers the production of physical, chemical, and biological systems at scales ranging from atomic and molecular levels to a wide range of industrial applications, such as electronics, medicine, and cosmetics. Nanobiomaterials synthesis are promising approaches produced from various biological elements be it plants, bacteria, peptides, nucleic acids, etc. Owing to the better biocompatibility and biological approach of synthesis, they have gained immense attention in the biomedical field. Moreover, due to their scaled-down sized property, nanobiomaterials exhibit remarkable features which make them the potential candidate for different domains of tissue engineering, materials science, pharmacology, biosensors, etc. Miscellaneous characterization techniques have been utilized for the characterization of nanobiomaterials. Currently, the commercial transition of nanotechnology from the research level to the industrial level in the form of nano-scaffolds, implants, and biosensors is stimulating the whole biomedical field starting from bio-mimetic nacres to 3D printing, multiple nanofibers like silk fibers functionalizing as drug delivery systems and in cancer therapy. The contribution of single quantum dot nanoparticles in biological tagging typically in the discipline of genomics and proteomics is noteworthy. This review focuses on the diverse emerging applications of Nanobiomaterials and their mechanistic advancements owing to their physiochemical properties leading to the growth of industries on different biomedical measures. Alongside the implementation of such nanobiomaterials in several drug and gene delivery approaches, optical coding, photodynamic cancer therapy, and vapor sensing have been elaborately discussed in this review. Different parameters based on current challenges and future perspectives are also discussed here.


12. Bhattacharjee, R., Nandi, A., Sinha, A., Kumar, H., Mitra, D., Mojumdar, A., Patel, P., Jha, E., Mishra, S., Rout, P. K., Panda, P. K., Suar, M., & Verma, S. K. (2022). Phage-tail-like bacteriocins as a biomedical platform to counter anti-microbial resistant pathogens. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie155, 113720.DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113720

Abstract:Phage Tail Like bacteriocins (PTLBs) has been an area of interest in the last couple of years owing to their varied application against multi-drug resistant (MDR), anti-microbial resistant (AMR) pathogens and their evolutionary link with the dsDNA virus and bacteriophages. PTLBs are defective phages derived from Myoviridae and Siphoviridae phages, PTLBs are distinguished into R-type (Rigid type) characterized by a non-flexible contractile nanotube resembling Myoviridae phage contractile tails, and F-type (Flexible type) with a flexible non-contractile rod-like structure similar to Siphoviridae phages. In this review, we have discussed the structural association, mechanism, and characterization of PTLBs. Moreover, we have elucidated the symbiotic biological function and application of PTLBs against MDR and XDR pathogens and highlighted the evolutionary role of PTLBs. The difficulties that must be overcome to implement PTLBs clinically are also discussed. It is imperative that these issues be addressed by academics in future studies before being implemented in clinical settings. This article is novel in its way as it will not only provide us with a gateway that acts as a novel strategy for scholars to mitigate and control the uprising issue of AMR pathogens but also promote the development of clinical studies for PTLBs.


13. Behera, H. T., Mojumdar, A., Behera, S. S., Das, S., & Ray, L. (2022). Biocontrol of wilt disease of rice seedlings incited by Fusarium oxysporum through soil application of Streptomyces chilikensis RC1830. Letters in applied microbiology75(5), 1366–1382. doi: 10.1111/lam.13807

Abstract:The genus Streptomyces includes many antifungal metabolite-producing novel strains. Fusarium oxysporum soil-inhabiting pathogenic fungi, that affects rice to cause wilt disease. This work demonstrates the efficacy of novel Streptomyces chilikensis strain RC1830, previously isolated from estuarine habitat Chilika Lake in preventing the F. oxysporum wilting/root rot disease and promoting the growth of rice (Var. Swarna) seedlings. A total of 25 different compounds were identified from crude extracts of S. chilikensis RC1830 by GC-MS. In pot trial experiments, Streptomyces-treated rice seedlings showed significantly reduced disease severity index by 80·51%. The seedlings growth parameters (root length, root fresh weight and root dry weight) were also increased by 53·91, 62·5 and 73·46%, respectively, in Streptomyces-treated groups of seedlings compared to Fusarium-infected seedlings. Similarly, the shoot length, shoot dry weight and shoot fresh weight were also increased by 26, 58 and 34·4%, respectively, in Streptomyces-treated groups of seedlings compared to Fusarium-infected seedlings. Formulations of the strain were prepared using seven organic and inorganic wastes as the carrier material and the shelf lives of the propagules were also monitored. Vermiculite and activated charcoal formulations stored at 4°C exhibited a higher viable cell count after 3 months of storage.

14. Pattanaik, K. P., Sengupta, S., Jit, B. P., Kotak, R., & Sonawane, A. (2022). Host-mycobacteria conflict: Immune responses of the host vs. the mycobacteria TLR2 and TLR4 ligands and concomitant host-directed therapy. Microbiological research264, 127153.  doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2022.127153

Abstract:Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is one of the most grievous infectious diseases with long-term morbidity and unpredicted mortality rates globally. Thus, understanding the host-pathogen interactions to develop potential drugs is the most focused area of research. Mtb has many antigens communicating with host cells via various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). From which, toll-like receptors-2 and 4 (TLR2 and 4) are two major PRRs that provide the primary immune response to Mtb infection of the respiratory tract. As a result, the TLR-mycobacterium antigen interaction triggers a variety of crucial innate immune signalling mechanisms such as phagosome maturation, oxidative stress, elicitation of cell deaths, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and eventually associates with the adaptive immune response to establish infection. Despite the extensive investigations on TLR2 and 4 Mtb ligands that have a significant role in the immune defence system, there are still many unsolved concerns driving researchers to explore the obscures. This review focuses on the host immune modulation due to Mtb-TLR2 and 4 ligand interaction. Subsequently, the host TLR2 and 4 immune signals in cooperation with other PRRs and successive cytokine expressions are discussed. Also highlighted are some recent findings on host-directed therapy related to TLRs that aid in developing novel immunotherapeutic prospects for the better control of Mtb infection.

 15. Mohanty, R., Manoswini, M., Dhal, A. K., & Ganguly, N. (2022). In silico analysis of a novel protein in CAR T- cell therapy for the treatment of hematologic cancer through molecular modelling, docking, and dynamics approach. Computers in biology and medicine151(Pt A), 106285. odi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.106285

Abstract: Cellular therapy has emerged as a key tool in the treatment of hematological malignancies. An advanced cell therapy known as chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CAR T-cell therapy) has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as KYMRIAH by Novartis and YESCARTA by Gilead/Kite pharma in the year 2017. A chimeric receptor is composed of an extracellular antigen recognition site along with some co-stimulating and signalling domains. On the whole, it turns out to be one of the most potent receptors on T cells targeting a specific type of cancer cell based on its antigenic marker. CD19 CAR T-cell therapy is the first clinically approved therapy for lymphoma with remarkable results in complete remission of B cell lymphoblastic leukemia up to 90%. The high rate of effectiveness of the CAR T-cell therapy against B-ALL justifies the investigation and application of this therapy for fatal diseases like all types of hematological malignancies. The most critical aspect of chimeric receptor therapy is designing and building an artificial receptor that is specific to a given type of cancer. For this reason, the in silico technique is an appropriate model to investigate the integrity and effectiveness of the engineered chimeric receptor prior to commencing in vitro experiments followed by clinical trials. This computerized experimental study aids in predicting the molecular mechanism of chimeric protein and how it interacts with both ligands. We have anticipated various features of the chimeric protein in terms of qualitative analysis (structure, protein modelling, physiological properties) and functional analysis (antigenicity, allergenicity, its receptor-ligand binding ability, involving signalling pathways). Furthermore, the reliability and validation of the binding mode of the chimeric protein against receptors were performed through a complex molecular dynamics simulation for a 100 ns timeframe in an aqueous environment. The obtained simulation study showed that CD30 was a better approachable marker as compared to CD20 due to its better binding energy score and also binding conformations stability.


1. Thakur, C.; Karthikeyan, C.; Bhal, S.; Kundu, C.; Moorthy, N. (2022). Targeted Delivery of Doxorubicin to Breast Cancer Cells by Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Lysine via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition and Conjugation with Sugar moieties. Proceedings of the 8th International Electronic Conference on Medicinal Chemistry, 1–30 November 2022,

Abstract: Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have gained a lot of multidisciplinary attention and biomedical applications such as drug delivery, because of their distinct physicochemical characteristics. Even though MWCNTs are not used because of low dispersibility in aqueous or non-aqueous medium. Functionalizing MWCNTs is an attractive way to overcome this drawback, it improves biocompatibility and promotes ligand attachment for targeted drug delivery. However, most functionalization techniques include hazardous procedures and costly chemicals. The current study uses a straightforward, economically advantageous method to functionalize MWCNTs with lysine through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition for enhanced dispersibility and to offer a ligand anchoring ε-amino group for targeted delivery to breast cancer. MWCNTs had been functionalized with lysine and sugar moieties ligands (galactose/mannose) to create efficient nanocarriers that can bind to lectin receptors in MDA-MB-231 or MCF-7 cancer cells. Doxorubicin (Dox) was loaded into the ligands conjugated MWCNTs. In comparison to pristine MWCNTs, 1,3-lysinated MWCNTs conjugated with ligands demonstrated enhanced dispersion in an aqueous medium and greater drug loading capacity. Drug release studies in pH 7.4 were 20% only & in pH 5.0 was around 75%. Dox-loaded MWCNTs provided pH-dependent releases and enhanced Dox accumulation inside the cancer cells, as evidenced by higher inhibition of MDA-MB-231 or MCF-7 compared to plain Dox, and unloaded Dox MWCNTs nanoformulations provided negligible cytotoxicity. Based on the results, MWCNTs functionalized with lysine by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition offer promising nontoxic nanoplatforms with improved aqueous dispersibility and potential for conjugation with ligands for targeted delivery of Dox to breast cancer cells.

2. Singh, S.; Paul, S.; Karthikeyan, C.; Brás, N.; Kundu, C.; Moorthy, N. (2022). Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of Novel 1H-benzo[d]imidazole derivatives as Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) inhibitors for cancer treatment. Proceedings of the 8th International Electronic Conference on Medicinal Chemistry, 1–30 November 2022.

Abstract: FASN a metabolic oncoprotein overexpressed in multiple cancer and regulates the fatty acid requirement for proliferated cells. Thus, FASN has been proposed as a promising novel target for anticancer drug discovery. Herein we report the de-novo design and synthesis of small molecule FASN inhibitors (CTL) targeting breast and colorectal cancer. The structure-activity relationship studies led to identify CTL-1 and CTL-7 as potent, selective FASN inhibitors had an IC50 2.5 and 3.0 µM. The CTL-1 and CTL-7 inhibits proliferation of colon cell (with IC50 range of 3-5 µM) in HCT-116, CaCO2 and breast cells MCF-7, MDA-MB-231. However, in non-cancerous cell line HEK-293 the IC50 of CTL-1 and CTL-7 was above 30 µM. Further cell cycle analysis and apoptosis assay of CTL-1 and CTL-7 in HCT-116 cells represents S-phase arrest along with prolong apoptotic effect. The western blot analysis of CTL-1 and CTL-7 establish the FASN pathway participation in causing cell apoptosis. The molecular dynamics simulation studies indicate the high affinity of CTL-1 and CTL-7 against the FASN enzyme.


1. Dr. Chinmayee Sethy, Dr. Chanakya Nath Kundu. Patent title: Nectin-4 as a Soluble Biomarker for The Detection of Cancer (India Patent Application no. 202231059837)

Abstract: The present invention relates to methods for detecting and diagnosing cancer Moreover, the present invention relates to methods for screening an agent for or preventing cancer. More Particularly the present invention relates to a development of biomarker for the detection of various cancers. The very well-expressed protein (namely Nectin-4) in all types of cancers and this protein specifically expressed in cancer cells but not in any normal tissue, cells in the body. Moreover, the aggressiveness of cancer can be predicted or determined by checking the level of Nectin-4 expression in cancer samples. The Nectin-4 expression can be checked in two easily available samples such as blood and lymph node aspirates. No robust and complex techniques are involved in the sample collection, processing, and detection of the level of Nectin-4 expression. Results showed that the level of Nectin-4 expression can help in deciding the treatment plan for effective treatment. 

2. Ms. Mamata Das, Mr. Biswajit Das, Dr. Chanakya Nath Kundu. Patent title: Polysaccharide-Based Wound Healing Patch. (India Patent Application no. 202231059838)

Abstract: The present invention relates to composition of a curcumin-loaded carboxymethyl tamarind (CMT) /crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) /nano silver-based wound healing patch to promote the wound healing process more rapidly with potential antibacterial activity. The developed patch contains naturally available ingredients to avoid cytotoxicity of the patch. The developed patch is mechanically flexible with excellent antibacterial activity and wound healing potential. Formulated patch can avoid the unusual excess dressing changes during the healing process as compared to conventional dressing materials. 

3. Dr. Shakti Ranjan Satapathy, Mr. Somya Ranjan Dash, Dr. Chanakya Nath Kundu. Patent title: Quinacrine-gold hybrid nanoparticle and NIR irradiation for treatment of oral cancer. (India Patent Application no. 202231059841)

Abstract: The present invention relates to preparation of hybrid nanoparticles. we use a natural bioactive compound, Quinacrine (QC) which specifically target and kill the cancer cells. Further, QC has been Quinacrine is conjugated with a metallic gold nanoparticle (AuNP). we mix both of them to generate a hybrid nanoparticle (QAuNP) which when excited with a fixed laser power of NIR offers excellent anticancer and photothermal potentiality at the localized oral cancer by generating heat. The modest heat produced by hybrid nanoparticles activated with NIR can destroy oral cancer cells while protecting adjacent healthy cells from heat stress. The developed hybrid nanoparticle poses no threat to the body’s healthy cells. Due to its reduced size of, it demonstrated an improved permeability and retention effect (EPR effect). 

4. Applicants: Gopal Chowdhary, Berhanu Girma and Pamela Chanda Roy

Title of the invention: A non-genetically modified approach of use of rhizobacterial cocktail for imparting tolerance for abiotic stress matrix in crop plants

Indian Patent application number- 202231060862

Web link:

Abstract: Abiotic stress is a serious threat to crop plants. Due to ongoing climate change, it has become imperative to find ways to counter this. Here we have devised a mechanism to use a cocktail of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to alleviate the abiotic stress in crop plants.

Applicants: Dr. D. Mandal, Dr. B. Panigrahi and Dr. R. Singh.

Title of the invention: Metal based Hybrid Protease Inhibitor for Multiple Proteases

India patent application no. 202131010934, patent published.

Abstract: The present invention describes a metal-based hybrid multi-protease inhibitor that uses the organic-inorganic hybrid combination of flavonoids and metal as an inhibitor that aids to inhibit multiple proteases and has a wide range of inhibition efficiency. The proposed hybrid protease inhibitor provides significant inhibition against a broad range of proteases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, proteinase K, and pepsin. The protease inhibitor is compatible and active in different buffer conditions. The hybrid protease inhibitor is non-toxic, water-soluble, and non-hazardous to the patient. Further, the proposed hybrid inhibitor is a low-cost hybrid protease inhibitor that is 10 times cheaper than commercially available inhibitors. The hybrid protease inhibitor has various applications across a wide range of industries including as an anti-aging cream and an antidandruff shampoo in the cosmetic industry, as a pest control agent in agriculture, as an antiviral drug in the pharmaceutical industry, protein-drug purification industry, and biotech industry.


Grant or Project Awarded (Both Sponsored Research and Consultancy):

Title of the Sanctioned Project: Human host candidate genetic marker revelation by transcriptomic profiling of vitamin D deficient Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in the paediatric population of Odisha, India

Principal Investigator’s Name: Dr. Biswadeep Das, School of Biotechnology

Co-Principal Investigator’s Name: Prof. Sanghamitra Pati, Dr. Chinmay Behera, Dr. RajaniKanta Mahapatra

Name of Funding Agency: ICMR-MERA, Govt. of India

Sanctioned Amount of Project: Rs. 56 Lakhs for 2 years

Abstract of the Project:

Malaria is the most important vector borne disease in various parts of India, in particular regions with hot and humid climates, and is caused by the parasite, Plasmodium species. Because vitamin D deficient malaria cases mostly occur in most of the children in the age group of 2-17 years, it is important to understand the underlying genetic mechanisms associated with vitamin D deficiency and vivax malaria. This research will involve transcriptomic profiling of vitamin D deficient malaria cases   in the pediatric population of Odisha, India for the determination of specific host genetic markers. The data generated will assist in elucidating the role of vitamin D in malaria outcome, that could assess the genetic basis of malaria severity in vitamin D deficient cases, which could be utilized by malariologists to take a call to provide vitamin D supplementation for ameliorating malaria symptoms.  


  1. Student’s Name: Dr. Deepika Nayak

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Chanakya Nath Kundu, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title:  Study the role of Quinacrine and Curcumin combination for anti-breast cancer progression by deregulation of ABCG2 in pre-clinical model systems

Abstract of the Thesis:

Cancer stem cell like cells (CSCs) present a challenge in the management of cancers due to their involvement in the development of resistance against various chemotherapeutic agents. Over expression of ABCG2 transporter gene is one of the factors responsible for drug resistance in CSCs, which causes efflux of therapeutic drugs from these cells. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) cause drug resistance in cancer due to its extensive drug efflux, DNA repair and self-renewal capability. ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) efflux pump afford protection to CSCs in tumors, shielding them from the adverse effects of chemotherapy. The development of inhibitors against CSCs has not achieved any significant success, till date. In this work, we have evaluated the anti-proliferative activity of curcumin (Cur) and quinacrine (QC) against CSCs using in vitro model system. Cur and QC synergistically inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of CSCs enriched side population (SP) cells of cigarette smoke condensate induced breast epithelial transformed (MCF-10A-Tr) generated metastatic cells. Cur+QC combination increased the DNA damage and inhibited the DNA repair pathways in SP cells. Uptake of QC increased in Cur pre-treated SP cells and this combination inhibited the ABCG2 activity by the reduction of ATP hydrolysis in cells. In vitro DNA binding reconstitution system suggests that QC specifically binds to DNA and caused DNA damage inside the cell. Decreased level of ABCG2, representative cell survival and DNA repair proteins were noted after Cur+QC treatment in SP cells. The molecular docking studies were performed to examine the binding behaviour of these drugs with ABCG2, which showed that QC (-53.99 kcal/mol) and Cur (-45.90 kcal/mol) occupy a highly overlapping interaction domain. This suggested that in Cur pre-treated cells, the Cur occupied the ligand-binding site in ABCG2, thus making the ligand binding site unavailable for the QC. This causes an increase in the intracellular concentration of QC. The results indicate that Cur+QC combination causes CSCs death by increasing the concentration of QC in the cells and thus causing the DNA damage and inhibiting the DNA repair pathways through modulating the ABCG2 activity. Although the role of ABCG2 in cancer progression, invasiveness, recurrence are known but its role in metastasis and angiogenesis are not clear. Here, using in vitro (CSCs enriched side population [SP] cells), ex vivo (patient derived primary cells), in ovo (fertilized egg embryo) and ex vivo (patient derived primary tissue mediated xenograft (PDX)) system, we have systematically studied the role of ABCG2 in angiogenesis and the regulation of the process by Curcumin (Cur) and Quinacrine (QC). Cur+QC inhibited the proliferation, invasion, migration and expression of representative markers of metastasis and angiogenesis. Following hypoxia, ABCG2 enriched cells released angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF A) and induced the angiogenesis via PI3K-Akt-eNOS cascade. Cur+QC inhibited the ABCG2 expression and thus reduced the angiogenesis. Interestingly, overexpression of ABCG2 in SP cells and incubation of purified ABCG2 protein in media induced the angiogenesis but knockdown of ABCG2 decreased the vascularization. In agreement with in vitro results, ex vivo data showed similar phenomena. An induction of vascularization was noticed in PDX mice but reduction of vascularization was also observed after treatment of Cur+QC. Thus, data suggested that in hypoxia, ABCG2 enhances the production of angiogenesis factor VEGF A which in turn induced angiogenesis and Cur+QC inhibited the process by inhibiting ABCG2 in breast cancer.

2. Student’s Name: Dr. Berhanu Girma

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Gopal Chowdhary, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title:  Isolation and Characterization of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria from Rice Fields of Konark and Investigating their Efficacy in Imparting Abiotic Stress Tolerance

Abstract of the Thesis:

Abiotic stress is a major bottleneck in agricultural productivity. It is estimated that 20% world’s cultivated land and 33% of the total irrigated agricultural land are salt-affected and, it is increasing at an annual rate of 10% and as per an estimate, about 50% of agricultural land will be under the impact of saline stress by 2050 (Tanji, 1990; Jamil et al., 2011).In the Indian scenario, about 7 million hectares of agricultural land are affected by saline stress, which primarily lies in the states of West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Goa (Abrol and Bhumbla, 1973). This phenomenon is further aggravated by ongoing global climate change. Maintaining crop productivity under salt stress would require additional efforts (Turral et al., 2011). Soil salinization and the unanticipated threat of climate change scenarios are two of modern agriculture’s primary concerns. Due to a decrease in the yield because of saline stress conditions, the application of an excessive amount of chemical fertilizer has become a common norm, which in turn leads to environmental degradation. This has led to the search for alternate options for imparting saline stress tolerance to agriculturally important crops and maintaining the yield. Recent research has demonstrated the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can improve the tolerance of crop plants  against abiotic stresses (Gupta et. al., 2000; Jha et al., 2012; Rajput et al., 2013; Sapre et al., 2018; Sijilmassi et al., 2020). The investigation of the PGPR strain’s whole-genome data, as well as the identification of their plant growth-promoting and stress-tolerance genes, is critical since it will enhance our understanding of  molecular mechanisms in the development of better bio-fertilizers using PGPR-assisted technology (Schuster, 2008). As explained above, the state of Odisha has a long coastline and saline stress is a major concern for agriculture. Further, rice is a major crop being cultivated in the state of Odisha. Hence, we intended to isolate the PGPR strain/s which could impart saline stress tolerance to rice plants. For this, we have used the rhizospheric soil from the Konark area of the state of Odisha (19°53ʹ14.80ʺN, 86°05ʹ40.55ʺE). The area under investigation lies in the vicinity of the sea and hence has a persistent problem of saline stress. No previous studies on the PGPR from this area have been reported. The following objectives for the research work were formulated:
Isolation and characterization of PGPR strain/s from the salt-affected rhizospheric area of paddy fields (Konark, Odisha, India)
To analyze the whole genome sequence of PGPR strain/s and present a comparative genome snapshot to understand the PGPR functional genes that promote plant growth and impart saline stress tolerance to plants
To investigate the efficacy of isolated PGPR strain/s in imparting the saline stress tolerance to rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.).  

3. Student’s Name: Dr. Swatishree Sradhanjali

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Mamatha M. Reddy, LVPEI (Supervisor) and Dr. Rahul Modak, KIIT Deemed to be University (Co-supervisor)

Thesis Title: The role of MYCN in regulating metabolic reprogramming in retinoblastoma.

Abstract of the Thesis:

MYCN is a master regulator of several cellular processes including metabolism. It is found to be overexpressed and is linked to dysregulated metabolism in several cancers. Therefore, a thorough understanding of metabolic processes and the targeting of metabolic enzymes to control particular bioenergetic activities in cancer cells is of paramount importance. Cancer cells rely on increased bioenergetics for rapid cell growth and proliferation. Several scientific studies have suggested that metabolic reprogramming is a key to cancer aggressiveness possibly via activating numerous growth signalling pathways. Further, MYC overexpression/amplification has also been linked to aggressive phenotype and increased proliferation rates in several malignancies. Currently, the mechanism behind metabolic reprogramming in adult cancers has been studied widely. However, altered metabolism in pediatric cancers such as retinoblastoma (RB) is just beginning to emerge. The predictive importance of mitochondrial OXPHOS, association between lipid metabolism and invasion has been reported in RB. However, the mechanism behind MYCN regulation of metabolic pathways in RB was yet to be deciphered until this thesis. Consequently, in the current thesis, our findings show that MYCN is overexpressed in retinoblastoma (RB) and regulates various metabolic pathways. We sought to decipher the significance of two important metabolic genes regulated by MYCN namely pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase  (PDK)1 and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB) 3 in RB and targeted these enzymes using small molecule inhibitors or by shRNA approach. Interestingly, we found that targeted inhibition of PDK1 and PFKFB3 resulted in decreased cell viability and migration of RB cells compared to the untreated controls. Further, it also led to increased apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The effects of PDK1 and PFKFB3 inhibition on metabolic parameters such as glucose uptake and lactate levels were also studied and found to be decreased. Overall, the above results suggest that these genes could be potential therapeutic targets in RB. Additionally, we also tested the therapeutic efficacy of first-line chemotherapeutic drugs such as melphalan and carboplatin in combination with small molecule inhibitors of MYCN, PDK1 and PFKFB3 on RB cell lines and synergistic drug interactions were observed. However, some levels of additive and antagonist interaction between the drugs were also seen. These drug combination study provided a rationale for developing additional targeted therapeutic strategies for RB. However, comprehensive in vivo studies are required to understand and elucidate the synergistic growth inhibitory effects of these drugs in combination. The findings presented in this thesis show that targeting MYCN and MYCN-regulated metabolic pathways may be an interesting basis for developing innovative treatment approaches for retinoblastoma. Further, targeted inhibition of MYCN and metabolism may possibly improve the therapeutic efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents in combination in MYCN driven retinoblastomas.

4. Student’s Name: Dr. Sourav Mishra

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Dindyal Mandal, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title: Exploring Catechol in nanoparticle synthesis and potential applications of catechol generated nanoparticles.

Abstract of the Thesis:

Catechol is demonstrated as a versatile reducing agent/stabilizing agent for the facile and one pot synthesis of monometallic (Au, Se and Pd) and bimetallic nanoparticles in alkaline condition (pH = 11) based on the redox chemistry of catechol. Catechol-derived PdNPs and SeNPs exhibit laccase and peroxidase like activity, respectively. Catechol derived gold nanoparticles serving as an excellent support for enzyme immobilization with recyclable properties are also reported here. As a test model protienase k immobilized on gold nanoparticles exhibits significant biocatalytic activities without compromising the enzyme activity. In summary. this work offers a versatile reducing agent for nanoparticle synthesis and demonstrates new generation of artificial enzymes.   Herein, a label-free, fast, colorimetric dual sensing system based on the surface chemistry of catechol-generated gold nanoparticles (cAuNPs) is reported with very low limit of detection. In this study, a facile catechol mediated gold nanoparticle (cAuNPs) synthesis has been established and characterised by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques,high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The newly generated cAuNPs exhibit plasmonic response toward the industrially important rare earth element ytterbium (Yb3+) and biologically significant enzyme proteinase k (PK). The strong affinity of the AuNPs toward the target analyte (Yb3+, PK) is associated with the rapid colorimetric changes, distinct spectral shift and formation of larger size of gold nanoparticles.  The results highlight the potential application of cAuNPs as rapid, cost-effective and sensitive colorimetric sensor for Yb3+ and proteinase k (PK). Catechol generated palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) have been utilized for the selective degradation of anionic dyes in aqueous solution.  Palladium nanocatalyst (4μg/ml) exhibits complete degradation of anionic azo dye congo red (CR) (150 μM) within 10 minutes of reaction time. The degradation efficiency is found to be linearly dependent on the initial dye concentration, PdNP catalyst concentration, temperature and pH of the solution. The degradation efficiency increases with the decrease in pH of the solution and increasing PdNP catalyst concentration. Furthermore, with respect to the dye concentration, the degradation rate is found to be first order reaction kinetics. The recyclability of the catalyst confirms that even after 3rd cycle 50% efficiency of the catalyst has been well retained and the degradation efficiency is found to be 92%. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the degraded products such as benzidine reveals the degradation through reductive cleavage of azo linkage. In summary, the results highlight the potential development of a nanocatalyst for the selective removal of anionic azo dye from the wastewater.  


Name of the Faculty: Dr. Chanakya Nath Kundu

Title of the Award: Plenary Session Award

Award Agency: Indian Association of Biomedical Scientists (IABMS) 43rd Annual Conference of Indian Association of Biomedical Scientists & International Conference on “An Integrative Approach Towards Health Protection and Health Promotion” in December, 2022.


Cancer stem cells secrete diffusible factors into the microenvironment that bind to specific endothelial cell receptors and initiate the angiogenesis, metastasis and cancer growth. Tumor- induced angiogenesis and metastasis are important parameter of tumorigenesis and is critical for tumor growth and metastasis. A pvrl-4 encoded gene, NECTIN-4, has potential roles in cancer cell growth and aggressiveness, and it is only expressed in cancer cells. There is evidence that nectin-4 plays a role in tumorigenesis, but the function of nectin-4 in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis has lacked thorough evidence of mechanism. It comprise of three specific domain endo ( N-terminal), ecto ( C-terminal) and trans membrane domain. The N-terminal domain of the nectin-4 induced the DNA repair and C-terminal domain is responsible for angiogenesis. Using highly metastatic cancer cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we have developed an excellent angiogenesis model and systematically studied the contribution of nectin-4 to angiogenesis. We also provide in-depth in vitro, in ovo, ex vivo and in vivo evidence that nectin-4 causes angiogenesis and propose that nectin-4 is an angiogenesis biomarker in breast cancer. Following hypoxia, the expression of ADAM-17 in metastatic breast cancer stem cells (mBCSCs) causes the shedding of the ecto-domain of nectin-4 into the microenvironment, which physically interacts with integrin-β4 specifically on endothelial cells. This interaction promotes angiogenesis via the Src, PI3K, AKT, iNOS pathway and not by Phospho-Erk or NF- κβ pathways. In vitro, in ovo and in vivo induction and abrogation of an angiogenesis cascade in the presence and absence of the nectin-4 ecto-domain, respectively, confirms its role in angiogenesis. Thus, disrupting the interaction between nectin-4 ecto-domain and integrin-β4 may provide a means of targeting mBCSC-induced angiogenesis.


Name of the Student: Mr. Saptarshi Sinha

Title of the Award: Best Paper Presenter Award (Oral Presentation Category)

Award Agency: Indian Association of Biomedical Scientists (IABMS) at 43rd Annual Conference of Indian Association of Biomedical Scientists & International Conference on “An Integrative Approach Towards Health Protection and Health Promotion” in December, 2022.


Background Although sensitization of BRCA-mutated, homologous recombination (HR)-deficient breast cancer cells through PARP inhibitor is widely studied, not much is known about the treatment of BRCA-wild-type, HR-proficient breast cancer.

Objectives Our aim is to investigate whether a natural bioactive compound, Resveratrol (RES), can induce DNA double-strand breaks in HR-proficient breast cancer cells and Olaparib (OLA), a PARP inhibitor, can enhance the RES-mediated apoptosis by deregulating the HR repair pathway.

Methods The detailed mechanism of anti-cancer action of RES+OLA combination in breast cancer has been evaluated using in vitro (MCF-7 and T47D cell lines), ex vivo (patient-derived primary breast cancer cells), and in vivo (xenograft mice) preclinical model systems.

Results OLA increased RES-mediated DNA damage, downregulated the HR proteins, caused a late S/G2 arrest, enhanced apoptosis and cell death in RES pre-treated breast cancer cells at much lower concentrations than their individual treatments. Direct measurement of HR pathway activity using a GFP plasmid-based assay demonstrated reduced HR efficiency in I-SceI endonuclease-transfected cells treated with OLA. Moreover, RES+OLA treatment also caused significant reduction in PARP1-mediated PARylation and efficiently trapped PARP1 at the DNA damage site. Upon RES treatment, PARylated PARP1 was found to interact with BRCA1, which then activated other HR proteins. But after addition of OLA in RES pre-treated cells, PARP1 could not interact with BRCA1 due to inhibition of PARylation. This resulted in deregulation of HR pathway. To further confirm the role of BRCA1 in PARP1-mediated HR pathway activation, BRCA1 was knocked down that caused complete inhibition of HR pathway activity, and further enhanced apoptosis after RES+OLA treatment in BRCA1-silenced cells. In agreement with in vitro data, similar experimental results were obtained in ex vivo patient-derived breast cancer cells and in vivo xenograft mice. Conclusion RES+OLA combination treatment enhanced breast cancer cell death by causing excessive DNA damage and also by simultaneously inhibiting the HR pathway.

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School of Management (KSOM) (Oct – Dec 2022) Thu, 05 Jan 2023 12:23:00 +0000 KIIT School of Management (KSOM)

Journal Papers 1. Mishra, S., & Sahoo, M. (2021). Motivation to transfer soft skills training: a systematic literature review. Management Research Review, 45(10), 1296–1322. Abstract Purpose: This paper aims to synthesize existing knowledge on trainee motivation to transfer (MTT) soft skills training through a systematic literature review (SLR). Design/methodology/approach: By applying a rigorous reproducible […]

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KIIT School of Management (KSOM)

Journal Papers

1. Mishra, S., & Sahoo, M. (2021). Motivation to transfer soft skills training: a systematic literature review. Management Research Review, 45(10), 1296–1322.


Purpose: This paper aims to synthesize existing knowledge on trainee motivation to transfer (MTT) soft skills training through a systematic literature review (SLR). Design/methodology/approach: By applying a rigorous reproducible process, this SLR identified a total of 33 peer-reviewed articles on MTT in soft skills training. Findings: The systematic review offers several important findings. First, research on MTT has accelerated in the recent past with studies conducted in varied geographic contexts. Second, MTT has been operationalized and measured as an antecedent and mediator of training transfer as well as an outcome itself is sampled papers. Third, MTT is recognized as critical in facilitating the transfer of soft skills. Finally, an investigation of empirical studies helped locate gaps in research methodologies, measurement of MTT and finally its predictors. Research limitations/implications: The study is limited by the search string and its choice of peer-reviewed articles published in the English language only. Originality/value: In the absence of systematic reviews on MTT in the context of soft skill, the study contributes immensely by providing an updated, cogent summarization of extant work and potential directions for future research/practice.

2. Sar, A. K. (2022). The Dynamics of Social Inclusion of People with Spinal Cord Injury. Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development, 33(1), 89.


Purpose: Social inclusion of people with disability is critical for maintaining social equity. The goal of this paper was to examine the dynamics of social inclusion of persons with spinal cord injury. Method: A cross-sectional research design was adopted to study the impact of individual, interpersonal, organisational, community and socio-political conditions on interpersonal relationships and community participation. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to validate the measurement models. Structural equation modelling (SEM) in AMOS was used to derive results. Results: The individual, interpersonal, organisational, community and socio-political conditions strongly influence social inclusion of persons with spinal cord injury. The strongest influencer of community participation is socio-political conditions (β=0.692 and p=0.001) and the strongest influencer of interpersonal relationships is organisational conditions (β=0.677 and p=0.001). Conclusion: Social inclusion, measured by interpersonal relationships and community participation, can be enhanced by improving the individual, interpersonal, organisational, community and socio-political conditions, thereby contributing to social equity and sustainable performance.

3. Das, S.L., Patnaik, B.C.M., Satpathy, I., & Das, S.C. (2022). A mathematical index model analysis of working capital management efficiency in the Indian private healthcare sector. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 13, 1216-1221.


A hallmark of standard business management is the capability to maintain a strong balance between profitability, growth and liquidity by efficiently utilizing the working capital of the company. This study is an attempt to view the strategic perspective of working capital management policy and practices with respect to efficiency as well as profitability of Indian healthcare sectors. The newness of this study is, it did not use the conventional ratio analysis methods for its analysis, rather used mathematical index-based formula as well as regression to analyze the efficiency of working capital management and their causal relationships. Financial data of 30 companies listed in Bombay stock exchange (BSE) of India, were collected for the period of ‘2019’ to ‘2022’ for this study. Findings suggest that due to Covid-19, it has become challenging for private healthcare providers to maintain the financial health of the healthcare sectors due to over burdens of capacity building for Covid patients in hospitals. In this study period some companies were found less efficient in managing their working capital properly due to the reason the healthcare sector belongs to the service industry and efficient working capital management is a very challenging task for the company. It was suggested that finance managers or policy makers by increasing the utilization index be able to reduce the operating cycle of the company. Several researches were conducted on working capital management in the Indian manufacturing industry using conventional ratio analysis, but very few studies were done using this methodology during Covid-19 period in the private healthcare sector of India which belongs to the service industry. This study will be helpful for policy makers and practitioners of working capital management in various industries. This will give a scope to the future researchers for further study of working capital management practices in both manufacturing and service sectors.

4. Sar, A. K. (2022b). Price estimation for Amazon Prime video in India. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management.


There has been a considerable change in consumer sentiments toward over-the-top media services during COVID-19 Pandemic and after that. Following the changes in the consumer sentiments, marketers have repositioned there offerings aligning with the consumer willingness to pay. Accordingly, knowledge about consumers’ willingness to pay has become vital for success of the media service firms. The purpose of the paper is to estimate the price of subscription to Amazon Prime Video in India in the emergent context by gaining insights into the consumers’ willingness to pay. “Van Westendrop Price Sensitivity Model” was used to estimate the prices. The findings suggest an optimal price point of ₹1300/- per annum with a range of acceptable price between ₹1000/- and ₹1500 per annum. The estimated prices are consistent with prevailing prices.

5. Subudhi, R. N. (2022). Social Development Data and Societal Modelling: A Study in Indian Context. Studies in Big Data, 47–56.


As we progress ahead and measure our growth in every field, science and technology or even societal development, every time, our focus is skewed and mostly myopic on what we achieved and what more to be done and how fast to be done. We seldom study what we really missed and skewed our development is. A retrospection and introspection, many a times, help us making a course correction. A development, or any economic growth, is no development if it is not for all and leaves a section of society. This paper looks at different social development models and important development indices which are in use today globally and analyses social development data in the Indian context. It refers to Mahalanobis D-square statistics and other Indian studies and attempts to suggest newer social development indices, using secondary data. It discusses issues relating to ‘social-big-data’, as available from secondary sources, published by various agencies. Paper presents a conceptual model for measuring the social wellbeing of individuals and families.

6. Ray, K. K. (2022). Customer Perception Towards Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY): An Empirical Investigation from Slum-dwellers Perspective. Millennial Asia, 097639962211187.


The government-sponsored welfare programmes are instrumental in balancing economic growth and reducing inequalities in society. Society becomes inclusive only when the deprived people have access to banking and financial services. The policymakers and financial players emphasized the importance of financial inclusion programmes because of their significant impact on economic growth and the financial health of the economy. The Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is a government-led intervention programme with a national mission to provide banking facilities to all deprived sections in the country. The study focuses to examine the determinants of customer perception towards PMJDY. The study includes the slum dwellers of Bhubaneswar as the target group of beneficiaries for empirical research. The determinants include the delivery process (SERVQUAL) and outcome attributes associated with the social scheme. As customer perception is a categorical variable, the multinomial logistic regression model is adopted to test the hypothesis. The study results indicate that the beneficiaries consider reliability, assurance, tangibility and social connect dimensions as the likely factors to obtain a higher level of perception towards the welfare programme.

7. Mahapatra, N.R., Kumar, A., & Pani, S.K. (2022). Demand supply chain of online education for children in the VUCA world. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 14(2). 7023-7028.


Education is the backbone of mankind’s progress. Every country wants their children to be exposed to early childhood education so that that they are not left out of the benefits of education. The early childhood education begins at home however once they are able to express themselves they need to have some formal education which will augment their cognitive as well as social interactions as well as the rest of the world outside their homes. Educational institutes play a great role here from early leaning methods as well as advanced schooling as they grow up. For all these they have to go out of the home and interact with other children, teachers with a face to face interaction with physical presence. This was a well-established model until year 2020. During COVID 19 pandemic the entire world experienced a challenge which was just against the 2 core concept of education, outing out of home and meets someone physically. Educational institutes all over the world had challenges life was sandwiched between lockdowns and unlocks and this was a never before challenge for them. Numerous individuals were the victims of the deadly virus which made the entire world a complex place to live in.  these had a direct impact on the uncertainty aspect in individuals as well as with the educational institutes. While the entire world struggled to deal with the unseen, uncertain and undesired state affairs, the resiliency in human beings and educational models started accepting the struggle by adapting to the change the situation demanded for. Soon this acceptance helped educational institutes to be more resilient, productive and demand driven to run the educational activities as usual adopting the un-usual ways of education through completely online mode of education. Eventually education institutes and children learnt in the hard way that the world we live in is actually a VUCA (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, and Ambiguous) world and at the same time continue imparting education to the children by accepting all changing parameters so that the educational outcome is achieved with resilience among all uncertainties. This study analyses the demand and supply chain of online education for children and proposes a paradigm shift that is required for education for children in time to come.

8. Sahoo, S.C., Ray, K.K., & Mitra, A. (2022). Exploring the Determinants of Life Insurance: a literature review approach. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 14(2), 3616-3621.


This paper is a review of studies that focuses on the determinants of life insurance. An attempt has been made to unravel and lucidly explain the arcane literature and to bring to the fore, the elements necessary for exploring the determinants of life insurance. The authors utilized a form of explicit review of literature that emphasizes on determinants of life insurance in a cogent manner to engender new systems and viewpoints. A frugal conceptual model has been put forward connecting demographic parameters, market and economic parameters, economic benefit parameters and other parameters specific to life insurance. Therefore, further systematic study on the relation attaching demographic parameters, market and economic parameters, economic benefit parameters and other parameters specific to life insurance, emerge to be extremely pertinent.

9. Shukla, G., Kumar, A., & Bhardwaj, A. (2022). Impact of Product Performance on Retailer Satisfaction with Respect to Distribution Channel Strategy of Britannia Biscuits. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education, 14(5), 2147-2166.


Biscuit is one of the popular food categories in India. It is very widely distributed owing to its high levels of affordability. Companies have launched products addressing needs of diverse consumer segments. There are products in value segment starting as low as INR 3 per packet. On the other hand, there are premium products which go as high as INR 60 per packet. Consumer preferences are changing, and today’s consumer is more demanding than ever. Innovation has thus become a way of life for Biscuit companies in India. Consumers are doing an evaluation of several product attributes before selecting a product. Key product attributes include Quality, Taste, Freshness, Packaging, Brand Loyalty and Innovation. Retailers are the ones who make sale of products to the end consumer and thus get first-hand detailed feedback on product performance from the consumers. A positive consumer feedback on product motivates retailer to recommend products to consumers. On the other hand, a negative consumer feedback on product is likely to have an adverse impact on retailer recommendations with respect to the product. This is an important aspect as negative product feedback from consumer impacts retailer’s goodwill as well. Retailers expect quality products from manufacturers and performance of products impacts their satisfaction levels. 382 retailers belonging to Khordha, Puri and Cuttack districts of Odisha were surveyed on this aspect. Key dimensions of Product performance like Quality, Taste, Freshness, Packaging, Brand Loyalty and Innovation were studied. The purpose of this study is to understand the Product aspect in detail and assess its impact on the satisfaction of retailers with respect to Britannia’s Channel Distribution Strategy.

Conference papers

1.     Gill, Karan Singh; Jha, Amaresh; Assylbekova, Aiman; Mishra, Isa (2022). Multimedia Systems and its Role in Adaptive Network Management. Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Computing and Data Communication Systems (ICSCDS-2022) IEEE Xplore Part Number: CFP22AZ5-ART; ISBN: 978-1-6654-7884-7


Multimedia systems are the systems that are capable of processing multimedia applications and data. This is characterized by processing, generation, storage, rendition and manipulation of the multimedia information. Additionally, adaptive network is the new approach, which expands upon autonomous networking concepts for transforming static networks into programmable and dynamic environments driven by intelligence and analytics. Autonomous network operates without much human intervention, and it configures, maintains and monitors itself independently. This research aimed to discuss the multimedia systems as well as its role in adaptive network management. It has provided a research rationale to discuss the issue and then use multimedia for effective adaptive network management. Moreover, this paper has provided a literature review, where it has provided the details of the multimedia system and benefits of it. In addition, it has identified some gaps from this literature so that in future other studies can mitigate these gaps by conducting better research. Moreover, the research has collected secondary data to get relevant information on the selected topic. It has been considered a secondary data collection method, because it is cost-effective and with help of it, this study could access the data of both primary and secondary research. Furthermore, the findings have suggested that multiple media systems are used for different purposes and enhance the adaptive network sector. However, the multimedia product is costly and it requires electronics that again increase the cost and that is why it is a huge advantage of multimedia systems

Patents (Published)

1.     Dr. S. Balamurugan, Ankur Jain, Dr. Yogeesha H C, Dr. Isa Mishra, Umesh Kumar, Dr. Usha C. Pawar, Moidul Islam Judder, Dr.Amit Rameshrao Gadekar, Hemraj Shobharam Lamkuche, Dr.Sachin K Kamble, Patent Name: Sensor Based Intelligent Robotic Leg for Assisting Physically Challenged People using Reinforcement Learning (Indian patent) Published on 22nd July, 2022.


Recent days have witnessed a steep rise in adoption of robotics and assistive technologies for aiding physically challenged people. Proposed is a Sensor Based Intelligent Robotic Leg for Assisting Physically Challenged People using Reinforcement Learning. According to the research conducted by World Health Organization (WHO), nearly 2 billion people in the world will be in need of assistive robots by the year 2050. Robotic leg is built with wearable sensors to monitor the movement of human limb and muscle activations. Zigbee sensor is used to monitor and record physiological parameters such as heartbeat, brain activity, sleep apnea, heart functioning, pulse and blood pressure. Stretchable Electrochemical Sensors id employed for blood glucose monitoring. For people suffering from Parkinsons disease, gait analysis is performed and moderated using Reinforcement Learning by on-shoe wearable sensor. Robot thus trained by Reinforcement Learning serves to be an effective assistive device for physically challenged people.

2.     Dr. Sucheta Priyabadini, Dr. Shradha Padhi, Dr. Isa Mishra, Dr. Debi Prasad Das, Patent Name: Women Tribes in Transition Among Alien Environment In Urban City (Indian patent) Published on 9th Dec, 2022


Women tribes in transition amid alien environment in urban city described herein. It analyses existing status of tribal women in the fields of livelihoods trend and occupational pattern, implication of social mobility, 5 indigenous cultural practices and working conditions in unorganized sector. It tries to assess women security and sustainable dignified livelihood opportunities in the urban city of the migrated tribal women. Involvement and contribution of women worker in the informal economy have been analyzed in terms of efficacy, actual availability of wages and 10 work site facilities and actual outlays as well. However, tribal women migration highlights the policies, rules and regulation for the tribal women relating to their security and dignity of life. Hence suggested recommendation and study findings may helpful both for government and other associated agencies those are actively involved in social 15 development sector for better strategic programme implementation and broad understandings of women issues at large scale.

Patents filed

1.     Dr. Debidatta Das, Dr. Isha Mishra, Dr. Tapan Kumar Bastia, Amit Vikram, Dr. Biswa Bandita Kar, Dr. Bansidhar Mulia, Dr. P. Karthigeyan, Patent Name: Robotic Laryngscope for Throat (Indian patent) Applied on 21st April, 2022.

Ph.D. Degree Awarded (Provisional)

Scholar Name- Tarun Shyam

Supervisor Name- Dr. Srikant Charan Das

Thesis Title: – Digital Divide in Higher Education System in Odisha


Technological change is a major contributor to the growth and development of theinformation society. Unequal access to information and communication technologies leads todigital divide and affects the growth and development of the society by powering somepeople who have availability of information and depriving others who do not have access to information (Malhan, I. V., 2003, Digital divide is the differential in access and use ofinformation and communication technologies (ICT) represents an obstacle to the informationsociety and ICT use is mainly influenced by habit, ICT skills, and benevolence. (Goncalves,c2018). A digital divide is any uneven distribution in the access to, use of, or impact ofinformation and communication technologies (ICT) between any numbers of distinct groups.These groups may be defined based on social, geographical, or geopolitical criteria (NITA,1995).Several digital divide scholars suggested that a shift is needed from a focus on binary Internetaccess (first-level digital divide) and Internet skills and use (second-level digital divide) to athird-level digital divide in which the tangible outcomes of Internet use (Scheerder, A., 2017).The outcome of the internet can be beneficial and non-beneficial, which has not been explored with respect to third level digital divide. So, proposed study can be carried out for identifying outcome of internet use and study the gap among all stake holders of Higher Education System. In Higher Education System, the stakeholders face challenges of digital divide. The type ofdigital divide is yet to explored in Higher Education System in India. So, the study will be carried out among the stake holders of the Higher Education in Odisha. The stakeholders tobe considered are students, faculties and administrative staffs of Higher Educational Institutes.This research will help to identify and make awareness of the digital divide in Higher EducationSystem which enable the policy maker to amend policy in future to minimize the gap occurringdue to digital divide. This research will indirectly help the student as well as the other stakeholders to access and get benefit from use of digital consumption.Keywords: Digital Divide, Digital Consumption.

Scholar Name- Sajal Kumar Ghosh

Supervisor Name – Dr. Ashok Kumar Sar

Thesis Title-

The Dynamics of Project Success: A Study of Railway Construction Projects in India


Purpose: To investigate the effects of project organizations’ structure, project management processes and project management systems on project management success measured by project’s completion time, cost, and quality. Design/methodology/approach: Three organizational theories, such as, structural contingency theory, process theory and systems theory are used as theoretical background for this study. Responses from railway construction project professionals in India in a seven-point Likert scalewere collected for the study. Partial Least Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) by Smart PLS3.3 statistical software was used for data analysis.Findings: Results revealed presence of significant positive effect of project organization’sstructure on project completion time but no significant effect on project cost or project quality inrailway construction projects.It was also found that, Project management processes of the construction organizations have significant positive effect on project cost and project time whereas project management systems have significant positive effect on quality of project output and project time.Implications: Keeping in view of the increased importance of construction project success, and increasing numbers of railway construction projects, the findings of this research study will helpconstruction project professionals in taking proper organizational decisions according to the priorities of their projects either to complete it within time, or within cost, or within scope/quality or with all of these success criteria.The finding will also be useful for future researchers in understanding the role of different organizational success factors in achieving construction project’s success criteria.Originality/ Novelty: This research used three project success criteria as dependent variables instead of using overall project success as done in earlier studies in the project management arena.Keywords: Project Structure; Project Management Process; ProjectManagement system; Railway Construction Project; PLS-SEM

Scholar Name-Devesh Rath

Supervisor Name- Dr. Ipseeta Satpathy

Thesis Title-Entrepreneurship in Odisha: Challenges & Opportunities


In order to be considered an entrepreneur, a person must have a desire to make money while alsomaking a positive impact on the world. He sets up, organizes, manages, and bears the risk of abusiness in order to make money. Any firm, especially a brand-new one, has some level of risk.The believer of menace enthusiastically initiates a state of the art firm in order to obtain financialgain and the opportunity for social mobility. As part of this quest, he collects the resourcesnecessary to take advantage of the opportunities that arise.Many risks and difficulties must betaken by an entrepreneur in order to generate a profit and bring new ideas, goods, and services tothe public. Instead of taking a job, he’s a brilliant thinker who makes a significant contribution tosociety’s economic well-being. It is the process of starting, organizing, running, and benefitingfrom a business that is called entrepreneurship. These factors have led to the development ofmore problem-solving-oriented definitions than those seen in the past.To be fair to entrepreneurs, they can provide solutions to a wide range of issues and difficulties. When startinga new business or venture, there is always the risk of losing money that could lead to itsextinction. Entrepreneurship’s most crucial component is this. Unemployment and the inability to create new jobs in India threaten the country’s economicgrowth. Governments in India have found it more difficult to keep pace with the country’s increasing population.No government can guarantee a steady supply of jobs without asignificant increase in the number of businesses and entrepreneurial endeavours. In order to close the gap between job opportunities and unemployment among Indians, large-scaleentrepreneurship and the establishment of corporate firms are essential. It’s vital to rememberthat a large portion of India’s population is under the age of 30 and many of them areunemployed.A greater number of young people are seeking employment after graduating from college, and this trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Entrepreneurship has beenwidely recognized with improving living conditions and boosting per capita income, as well asproviding new sources of finance for the government. Although the importance ofentrepreneurship is widely accepted, it is challenging to persuade people to chooseentrepreneurship over Job Opportunities. Finding and establishing successful entrepreneurshipopportunities is a challenging endeavour. Due to several challenges and difficulties that entrepreneurs confront, becoming an entrepreneuror launching a new business is not for everyone. Understanding the fundamental roles ofentrepreneurs is the first step in understanding entrepreneurship as a whole.Entrepreneurial Success is Influenced by a Wide Range of Factors and Variables, like:Demographic Profile: Indicators of a person’s background, such as age, gender, andeducational attainmentPersonality: Desire for success, risk-taking ability, independence, interest, expertise,leadership abilities, motivational level, and a thirst for growth are all examples of aspirational traits.Social Factors: Parental Role, Culture, Family & Friends Support, etc.Environmental Factors: Lack of Employment Opportunity, Resources, EconomicCondition etc.Other External Factors: The political, social, cultural, economic, legal andtechnological environments. The concluding observational factors based on the study of entrepreneurial challenges andopportunities in the state of Odisha categorized into Entrepreneurial Challenges and Opportunities, Personality Traits & Psychological Traits, Demographic & Motivational Factors, Pandemic & Corona Virus: Covid-19, Demonetization, Goods & Services Tax (GST), Incubators& Accelerators impacting their Business Performance confining to the two districts of Khurdha or Bhubaneswar & Cuttack having the functioning of maximum numbers of Start-ups and MSMEs are as follows.Males are more subjected to entrepreneurship than females, but however the trends are changingfrom past now many females are also taking entrepreneurship as career.Majority of entrepreneurs comprises of youth in the age group of 30-40 years, apart from that various agecategorization entrepreneurship ecosystem has been expanded. Study shows maximumentrepreneurs under married status opt for entrepreneurship in comparison to unmarried. It seems that entrepreneurs in Odisha belong to well educated society with pivotal importance toeducation is given which mostly may help them in their entrepreneurial journey.Majority of entrepreneurs in Odisha are better believer of practical professional experiences and skillacquisition before initiation of any kind of entrepreneurial venture by them so as to limit the riskfactor and which mostly may help them in their entrepreneurial journey. The general categorymajority of entrepreneurs in Odisha prefer to choose entrepreneurship and new venture creationas the best career option as per their convenience despite of India as a country being under reservation category for different classes of caste.The general upper middle class backgroundrespondents are more likely to pursue entrepreneurship as career than other background people inthe society. Thus, the private limited entity is the most preferred choice among entrepreneurs based on its pros despite of any corns associated with it as there is growing no. of start-ups in the state of Odisha with new age entrepreneurs motivated towards startup ecosystem and modernization.The statistics coveys that in recent passed more number of entrepreneurs have engaged themselves into entrepreneurial ecosystem. The response in Bhubaneswar is more dueto its identification a startup hub with presence of majority numbers of business incubators, accelerators, start-up commercial spaces etc and presence of many start-ups in the region activelyinto new age entrepreneurial ecosystem.Better infrastructural facilitation is mostly preferred byentrepreneurs for their business location operations. With 5 no’s of team size is more as mostly start-ups work on effectively team size with best resource optimization. The study observed that there is association and the personality and psychological traits like, Need for Achievement, Need for Independence, Locus of Control, Risk Taking Propensity, Innovative & Creative thinking are the major factors are responsible for entrepreneurial businessperformance along with the development of the entrepreneur.

Scholar Name- Tapaswini Pattnaik

Supervisor Name- Dr. Sasmita Rani Samanta& Dr. Jitendra Mohanty

Thesis Title- Work Life Balance of Health Care Workers in New Normal


The balance of work and life has become a serious challenge in a society full ofcontradicting responsibilities and commitments. Professional-life balance (WLB) is defined as a state of equilibrium in which an individual’s work and personal obligations are balanced. Work-life balance is critical for human resource development.Carlson and Grzywacz (2008) showed that work-family balance was at the core of the primary objectives of human resource development, either implicitly or explicitly, and that it was a powerful lever to enhance individual and organizational efficiency.The phrase &quote; work-life balance &quote; was coined in 1986, but its use in daily English was patchy for several years. Intriguingly, work-life services were already available in the 1930s.According to HR professionals, the WLB is critical for employee engagement and work satisfaction. The WLB is asignificant factor. It is the line that separates professional life from personal life, separating the job, business, trade, and all other aspects of an individual&#39;s existence that add up to their whole life. The WLB can achieve the ideal balance between work and other aspects of life (Kaliannan et al., 2016).This thesis is part of a doctorate program in management. The concerns of healthcare workers have long gone ignored among the myriad challenges affecting the Indian healthcare system. In order to contribute to the personal development of health-care professionals, hospitals must take a number of actions to make their occupations more gratifying and meaningful.To that end, the current study is aimed to fill a knowledge gap in Indian healthcare by focusing on physicians and other healthcare professionals, as well as their work-life balance and difficulties in the new normal condition. Identifying and understanding factors related to health care workers&#39; work-life balance problems in India is the primary objective of this study. The study also explores their expectations for different work-life balance systems in hospitals. 

Scholar Name- Sanjaya Kumar Ghadai

Supervisor Name- Dr. S.N Misra & Dr. Damodar Jena

Thesis Title- Local Community Participation in Success of Integrated Child Development Services: An Empirical Study in Khordha District of Odisha


 India launched the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme in 1975 with a view to improving nutritional and health status of children in the age group of 0-6 and of pre-natal and post-natal mothers, providing basic health care and imparting Early Childhood Education in the Anganwadis.The present research is anattempt to make an assessment of community participation and the effectiveness of theICDS programme by adopting the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) model. The research objectives include ascertaining KAP of respondents, measuring the extent of community participation and effectiveness &amp; identify the problems that hinder community participation.The major findings have been that Anganwadi centres helps in improving the attitudinal level of beneficiaries. In terms of participation, the beneficiaries are least involved in organizing meeting with local leaders. The majority of the respondent takes active part in nutritional programme, health check-up and immunization. The study also shows that higher education level contributes to higher participation in the community programmes. While the beneficiaries are satisfied with the performance of the AWC staff and immunization, the least satisfaction has been noticed in health referrals.The problems that hinder community participation are distance followed by shyness of the respondents. Theurban beneficiaries seem to have higher problems compared to the rural beneficiaries. Mothers of pre-school children seem to be least enthusiastic in communityparticipation. The research has important implication for the policy makers to reviewthe effectiveness of early childhood education, providing better health care supportservices and creating enabling environment for education, skill inculcation of the female respondents.

Scholar Name-Sekhar Chandra Sahoo

Supervisor Name- Dr. K.K Ray

Thesis Title- Aversion, Indifference and Propensity towards Life Insurance: Role of Insurance Literacy, Advisors and Information Sources


The relationship between the customers and the product has been there since the origin of business. Customers tend to have their own behaviour towards different products. And this behaviour is guided by certain pre-conditions, cognitive-biases which are long term results of information knowledge, exposure, experience etc.As businesses became competitive, business-houses decided to become smarter and thus, this relationship became a topic of observation and analysis. Unlike majority of the products in the market from various sectors, “Life Insurance” is an intangible product. This intangibility nature of the product makes the study of the relationship between the product and the customer difficult as well as all the more important.The objective of the present study is to establish and analyze the relationship that exists between theelements such as Insurance Literacy, Advisors and Information Sources and their impact on the behavior of the customer towards life insurance purchase.In Indian context, even today, life insurance is sold but not bought. This shows that the customers are averse to life insurance. If customers are averse, indifferent or inclined towards life insurance, do the elements mentioned above have any contribution in it?The current market of life insurance operates without taking in to account the importance and impact of the elements on the behavior of the customers towards life insurance. As such, the attitude of the customer towards life insurance is formed without proper literacy, advice and information, which is evident from the low insurance penetration of 3.2 percent of GDP in India.The study has its unique importance. Two such points must be noted. First, how the elements such as roleof insurance literacy, advisors and information sources impact customer behavior and second, how theinteraction between these elements can help us improve the odds of a positive customer behavior. Ineffect, the study can be used to work on moving the customer behavior from aversion to propensity towards life insurance.The study proposed the following objectives to investigate:1. To investigate whether life insurance purchase decision is dependent on age, gender and incomelevel.2. To investigate how other investment opportunities contribute towards aversion in life insurance.3. To study the role of advisors in life insurance decision making.4. To investigate the impact of information sources in deciding the life insurance policy.5. To devise a life insurance literacy index6. To study the investor’s personality towards purchase of life insurance products.7. To study how aversion adds towards under-insurance in life insurance.8. To investigate the factors underlying customer perception towards investment in life insurance.The research is exploratory in nature. The stratified random sampling technique is followed to collect the data with a structured questionnaire.The sample data includes two levels of stratification i.e. age and insured/uninsured. The sample respondents are classified into three categories on the basis of three age groups (Gen X, Y & Z) with insurance subscription and not subscribed of any insurance policies (3*2). The primary data was collected from adult population across India consisting of over 5000 respondents.The empirical findings suggest that age, gender and income level are influencing factors for purchasing life insurance policies. The researcher also studied the investors’ personality towards purchase of life insurance products and concluded that the Life insurance purchase decision is dependent on Personality trait 1(Introvert Extrovert), Personality trait 2 (Stubborn Agreeable), Personality trait 3 (Careless Sincere), Personality trait 4 (Anxious Confident) and Personality trait 5 (Traditional Open).A Life Insurance Literacy index was also prepared which comprises of 15 questions divided into 3 categories of basic questions on life insurance, introduction of life insurance and financial planning.After exploratory factor analysis it resulted into single factor (largest factor in terms of total variance explained) to construct a life insurance literacy index consisting of a few unique questions. The research scholar explored the levels of Life Insurance literacy amongst X, Y & Z generations.The empirical findings suggest that life insurance literacy among insured people is higher than that of uninsured people. Generation X is having the highest life insurance literacy whereas generation Y is the lowest. The focus was also to find the other alternative investment that is influencing the adverse decision towards life insurance products. For investigating the contribution of other investment opportunities as alternative to life insurance, the uninsured respondents were divided into 3 categories i.e. a) High income group, b) High savings group and c) High income and high savings group as investment activity of an individual relates to her/his income potential and savings habits. It is concluded that FD/RD and Gold/Silver are preferred across all categories as alternative investment to life insurance.A logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the correlation between variables of Advisors and their propensity of purchasing life insurance. The research scholar established that easy accessibilityof insurance advisors (ACCESS), providing correct information (CORR_INFO), and Insurance advisors inform and guide the customers (GUIDE) are positively & significantly associated with the purchase of life insurance, and also their odds ratio are higher than that of Insurance advisors have proper knowledge and competence (KNOW_COMP).Insurance advisors having proper knowledge and competence (KNOW_COMP) has fairly non-significant influence on the propensity of purchasing life insurance as the odds ratio is only 0.942.To explore the determinants of life insurance purchase decision an exploratory factor analysis isconducted on 26 key variables to differentiate between relevant independent factors that dictate thedemand for life insurance. The analysis resulted in four main factors namely company related factors, benefit factors, personal factors and household income and family security.The empirical findings suggest that Premium, Company Image, Brand Name, Overall Financial Satisfaction, Service Quality, Ease in Procedure, Company-Client Relationship, Satisfaction level, Secure Investment & Companyloyalty (Company related factors); Bonus & Interests, Charges, Accessibility, Rider Benefits, Tax savings(Benefits factors); Household Income, Family Security (Household Income and Family Security factor)are the important determinants for availing life insurance policies. Further, logistic regression model isemployed to test the association between determinant factors of life insurance purchase and the propensity of purchasing the life insurance policies.The study confirms that company related factors, benefitsfactors, household income and family security strongly stimulate the demand for life insurance, whereas the personal factors is found not to influence the propensity of purchasing life insurance.The Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was done on 3414 under-insured cases for knowing the reason fornot taking insurance or not having adequate insurance as well as how aversion adds towards under-insurance in life insurance. The study confirms that Lack of buying intent factor , Poorly informed factorand Financial Restraint Factor add towards under-insurance in life insurance adding to aversion. This study is an attempt to explore the high influencing factors of Life Insurance on customers in a developing country like India. The outcome of this research provides a valid basis for life insurance policy decision makers to concentrate upon key variables as potential drivers of demand for life insurance. The findings of this research may be helpful to the insurance companies to identify insurance literacy and factors to redesign their products as per the requirements of the different groups of customers.The present study will help life insurance companies for market segmentation, targeting & positioning of life insurance products. Providing financial education will definitely enhance life insurance literacy. Even though having high life insurance literacy, the reasons of low life insurance penetration may be an area of research for future for the researchers working in the field. “ Human Life Value (HLV) is the present value of all future income that one could expect to earn for his/her family and help in determining life insurance needs on the basis of one’s income, expenses, savings and liabilities”. The findings are important to the Government, life insurance companies and the public as well as theFindings demonstrate that life insurance literacy plays a crucial role while purchasing life insurance. The findings of the study gives a new analytical direction to the public at large as well as Government and life insurance literacy literature, which will promote life insurance penetration in India. Even though being life insurance literate, very high percentage of respondents are not insured the reasonsfor which may be lack of fund, inappropriate information towards life insurance, not being approached byproper insurance advisors, or lack of intention. This may be taken up for future research studies by theResearchers working in the field.Keywords: Aversion, Indifference, Propensity, Insurance literacy, Determinants of Life Insurance Purchase Decision, Life insurance literacy, Life insurance.

Scholar Name-Kumar Devdutta

Supervisor Name- Dr. Abhishek Kumar

Thesis Title-Implementation of GIS in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in Odisha


Education is the most important tool for social, economic and political transformationand a key instrument for building an equitable society. A well-educated population, equipped with the relevant knowledge, attitudes and skills is essential for economicand social development in the twenty-first century.Education also acts as anintegrative force in society, imparting values that foster social cohesion and national identity. Before 1976, education was the exclusive responsibility of the States. The Constitutional Amendment of 1976 included education in the Concurrent List. Whilethe role and responsibility of the States in education remained largely unchanged; the Union Government accepted a larger responsibility of reinforcing the national andintegrated character of education, maintaining quality and standards including thoseof the teaching profession at all levels, and the study and monitoring of theeducational requirements of the country.With the formulation of National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, India initiated awide range of programmes for achieving the goal of Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE).These efforts were intensified in the 1980s and 1990s throughseveral schematic and programme interventions, such as Operation Black Board(OBB), Shiksha Karmi Project (SKP), Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project(APPEP), Bihar Education Project (BEP), U.P. Basic Education Project (UPBEP),Mahila Samakhya (MS), Lok Jumbish Project (LJP), District Primary EducationProgramme (DPEP) and the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) – the flagship CentrallySponsored Scheme in partnership with State Governments for UEE across thecountry.This was further strengthened with the passage of the Right of Children toFree and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 which gave a legal mandate toprovide free and compulsory elementary education to every child in the age group of6-14 years.States and UTs were supported in the implementation of the RTE Act, 2009 throughthe Centrally Sponsored Scheme of SSA. The norms of the Scheme were aligned withthe provisions of the Act.The Goal 4.a states that “Build and upgrade education facilities that are child,disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effectivelearning environments for all”. To facilitate and foster elementary education, the Government of India envisioned toimplement one of the flagship initiative in the education domain that is Sarva Siksha Abhiyan [SSA].SSA encourages &amp; encompasses the universalization of ElementaryEducation for the age group of 6 – 14 years children. This education will be impartedfree of cost. The education is free, books distributed free, school uniform is providedfree. There are special incentives &amp; stipends to girl child. Further, inclusive educationhas been embraced &amp; emboldened in to the initiative. Profound and prudentprovisioning has been made to provide special care to the Children With Special Need [CWSN].The equipment are made available to the children, the resource persons arewell trained to extend personal care extensively &amp; expansively. Further, to advocategender equality at elementary education, SSA incorporates the necessary &amp; essentialelements. Considering the geographic spread &amp; demographic mix, the SSA initiative has beenconsidered as one of the prodigious initiative with massive investment of resourcesand a large pool of human capital.This has a gigantic, scalable, extensible, reliable&amp; robust operational framework. SSA infrastructural spread takes into account the existing elementary schools and upgrades them to accommodate the requirements. Further, new schools are established under this initiative with SSA compliance. Some of the salient features of the initiative: It introduces a holistic approach to education. it develops an ecosystem to advance &amp;aggrandize the inclusive education at elementary level.Administrative reforms are made to offer a simple, smooth &amp; sustainable operational framework. Continuous and consistent focus is appraised and acknowledged to provide quality education. Capacity building of Teachers &amp; school Head has been enhanced .moreemphasis is given to tech intervention. Creating nodal centers to groom teachers &amp; other stakeholders to uplift the competency level . Special attention is given to upgrade the science &amp; math talent by establishing domain specific curriculum /school. Girl education &amp; girl safety is under constant supervision, possible measures are taken to support the agenda. Sports and physical education helps in the overall development of the children. Utmost care and concern has been extended to encourage sports in school.The post implementation result was explainingthe acceptance &amp; appraisal of the new system and realize the cause of delay and couldbe able to minimize it substantially.Hence, the study ended with the conclusion &amp; conviction to implement real-timelocation based monitoring system to facilitate the distribution process &amp; minimize thedelay in delivery of goods &amp; services which in turn retains the foot fall and increasesthe enrollment in the school under the SSA initiative.

Scholar Name- Sweta Mishra

Supervisor Name- Dr. Shikta Singh

Thesis Title- Web-Store Nudges Influencing Healthier Food Choices


Job crafting is a new concept in today’s scenario and it has its applicability in all aspects. This concept has emerged as a requirement to rebuild and redesign the monotonous duties assigned to employees and give them a feel of newness in their work. Such a concept makes way to attract employees to their workplace and engage them in executing their duties and responsibilities.Here comes the concept of Employee Engagement which attracts and retains the talented mass in the organization. Considering these two concepts moving in a positive way makes the employees contended in their position. This means that the employees get satisfaction when they craft their job and engage themselves completely in their work. Such satisfied employees work to their level best to achieve their targets. We can say that the employees when happy and satisfied perform better and enhance their overall as well as achieve the goals of the organization. These four concepts are closely linked to each other and such relationships give rise to workforce marching ahead in a positive direction to achieve their targets and take their organization to a new level of success in this competitive market. The economy is growing and the financial sector is the strongest pillar on which the economy rests. When employees in this sector are givensuitable opportunities to implement such concepts, then they can revive and reach the peak of their success in less time. The current pandemic wave of Covid-19 has also brought down all sectors below their normal working and implementing such new concepts will definitely help the industries revive and again work at a normal pace.For the research work, the banking sector has been selected as it is a vast sector with massive workforce and forms the backbone of each economy. It has been done in the capital city of Odisha, i.e., Bhubaneswar taking into consideration several branches of SBI and Axis bank. This study deals with the existence of job crafting in the banking sector, its impact on employee engagement, satisfaction and performance and also studies the inter-relationship between employee engagement, satisfaction and performance in public and private sector bank.Further, the study deals with the precautionary measures taken during the Covid-19 times and which all measures are followed by the employees in both the sectors. Several variables taken from literature as well as from communication with few employees for the three constructs like engagement, satisfaction and performance were put in a questionnaire format and the data was collected.The questionnaire based on job crafting was an established one I and it was also used to collect data. The pilot study was conducted with 75 responses from bankers with the help of structured questionnaire using 5-point Likert scale. The variables were clubbed into major factors analyzing by exploratory factor analysis and the impact was studied. For the final survey, 289 responses from the banking employees were considered and analyzed from both sectors.There were 11 major hypothesis and several sub-hypotheses to conduct the study meticulously. For the analysis portions, the impact or existence of job crafting in the banking industry was studied doing ANOVA tables. Then, to analyze the effect of job crafting on employee engagement, employee satisfaction and employee performance regressions were done and studied. Further, to analyze the inter-relationships between employee engagement, satisfaction and performance, confirmatory factor analysis and structuralequation modelling was done using the variables and the inter-relationships were studied regarding the banking sector.Lastly, the precautionary measure was considered during the pandemic times and its impact was studied in public sector and private sector banks. The analysis depicted that job crafting existed in the banking sector but it was essential to practice it even more and use it for long run. It was found that more of task crafting existed in public sector bank and more of relational crafting was done by employees in the private sector bank. Even jobcrafting had impacted employee engagement, satisfaction and performance. In case of public sector employees were more engaged when they did task crafting, whereas, the private sector bank employees crafted their task and relations to be engaged at workplace.For attaining satisfaction at work, banks in both sectors followed task and relational crafting as and when required. Cognitive crafting was followed less in comparison to other two crafting methods. Similarly, the employees in public sector bank crafted their tasks and duties to perform better. On the other hand, the employees in the private sectorbank reshaped their relationships to perform in a better way.When the inter-relationships were studied in both sectors, employee satisfaction had more impact on engagement in compared to performance. When satisfaction was taken into account, the inter-relationship with engagement was comparatively more than performance. Similarly, when performance was taken its interrelationship with satisfaction was found to be more prominent than its relationship with employee engagement. I The precautionary measures also showed important practices that the bankers followed to sail through such pandemic times in public as well as private sector bank. In today’s critical times, it is essential to repave the different ways which will show a new direction in the banking era and such concepts can be one of the ways in which revamping can be done. As said earlier, the banking system is the major pillar of the financial hub in the economy, recreating or planning with such new concepts can emerge as a new path of progress.

Scholar Name- Bhuwandeep

Supervisor Name- Dr. S.N Misra

Thesis Title- An investigation on the effect of perceived learning environment on ‘academic’ motivation and class engagement


INTRODUCTION:Motivation in individuals have long been studied by academicians in different socialcontext since precursor of any propensity to act be it buying, studying etc. (Cofer&amp;Appley, 1964) .Indeed, researchers in educational psychology have pointed out the “on and off” relationbetween the motivation and contextual factors affecting it. Factors such as culture, personality, social environment are now getting renewed attention in field of motivational research (Anderman, 2004). The current study, therefore, is an attempt to study the effect of social and academicfactors of classroom setting on student’s mastery goals as well self-efficacy (both socialand academic). Further, we investigate the effect of learning environment factors on the student engagement. The research will also study the mediational effect of environmental factors on student engagement through motivation.LITERATURE REVIEWWhy we do what we do – has fascinated researchers for a long time. Consequently, motivation is a popular topic in academia and has spawned various theories such as;1) Expectancy Theory (Geiger &amp; Cooper, 1996) .2) Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1972) .3) Social Cognitive Theory (Schunk, 1989) .4) Goal Orientation Theory (Kaplan &amp; Maehr, 2007) .5) Self Determination. (Reeve, 2012) .The Expectancy theory hinges on how realistically we think we are going to succeed and the importance we accord to that pursuit. While Attribution theory pivots on the factorswe ‘attribute’/impose on our success or failure of our activities. The Goal theory is all about how the leaners engage in tasks with respect to acquisition of skill or mastering of the knowledge. Self-determination theory emphasizes the autonomy, perceived task competence for motivation in the leaners. (Brooks &amp; Young, 2011).However, we are more interested in Social Cognitive Theory of motivation since it advocates that people learn through interaction with environmental and social factors reciprocally. (Bandura, 1988) .This is a stark departure from behaviorist theory of learning that emphasizes that leaning occurs through reinforcement of the behavior. The main “actor” in the theory is a person who actively engages, makes a sense of his environment, and uses cognition to interpret the environmental cues. He/she is both creator and result of his/her surroundings (Stipek, 1993) .METHODOLOGYThe study was done using mix methods. Both the qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The quantitative methods were used (thorough reliable and validated scales) to test the hypothesized models through CFA, SEM and Mediational analysis. In qualitative method thematic analysis was used. In-depth interviews were used to uncover the impact of class settings on the student’s motivation and engagement.RESULTSThree research questions were formulated in our study. The first one being do elements of classroom setting impact engagements of the students? Our research says that it has impact on the task interactions as well as the student engagement in classrooms. Second question that was asked was do elements of classroom setting impact students’ motivational belief?The research confirmed that elements of classroom setting also have an impact on motivational beliefs of the student. The third question that was asked in the research study was do motivational beliefs mediate the impact of classroom settings on the student engagement? The answer is it does mediate. Our study is an urgent reminder to students, teachers, and educational institutes to take educational settings of classroom seriously and, use research backed recommendations to improve classroom settings for effective learning.Keywords: Motivation, Self-efficacy, Engagement, Classroom Learning

Scholar Name- Nihar Mahapatra

Supervisor Name- Dr. Abhishek Kumar

Thesis Title- An analysis of Reliance Fresh customers’ attitude towards a transparent supply chain in Odisha


The objective of any business is to gain customers’ confidence and loyalty and customer can only be loyal if they get the same product or service quality uninterruptedly. Products are madeavailable to customer from the manufacturers through a supply chain management system leveraging one or many intermediaries for smooth operation purposes.In recent days there is a massive growth in consumer products worldwide and supply chain management system has helped to make it possible. The consumer products market is valued at USD 711.56 billion in 2019 and is expected to reach USD 935.98 billion by 2025, at a CAGR of 4.6% over the forecast period from 2020 to 2025.The Largest Market for this is North America, and the fasted growing market for tis is Asia Pacific. India is contributing as the 2nd most after china in the Asia pacific growth.However in India there is a new challenge for the manufactures and consumers and this is related to the lack of end to end traceability of the consumer products, these are becoming essential attributed to counterfeiting, promised and delivered quality parameters, proper maintenance of environmental factorsas well as compliance both in transit and at rest.There is a massive increase in customer dissatisfaction which pertains to the product counterfeiting and non-traceability of the products in backward direction. As per figures shared by The Authentication Solution Providers’ Association (ASPA) the FMCG Products are the 2nd most counterfeited category after Currencies in India. A study done by KPMG in India indicates that due to counterfeiting, over 30% of business revenue is affected by branded products and these have increased at a rate of 24% in the last few years.This is not only causing business loss for the manufactures but becoming a matter for consumers as well. The consumers end up paying the products original cost and get substandard products whose quality is compromised due to various unclear and unfair practices. Apart from this these products also causing health hazards for consumes due to non-availability of quality controlassurance in the packaged items.Although manufactures are trying the best to reach out to consumers with best of their products and best in class qualities due to the phase wise distribution steps of traditional supply chain mechanism counterfeited products enter the distribution channel and the customers end up buying those from the different retail units. Customers are generally clueless about the different channels that the product has been through due to lack of information sharing process and once the product is sold the responsibility is not owned by any of the intermediaries in the product supply chain.And use of smart contract mechanism. The study will primarily to analyse consumers’ preference for tracking genuine FMCG products in Odisha and examine the feasibility of a tracking mechanism. The study will be primarily be done in 3 major coastal cities of Odisha Bhubaneswar, Cuttack and Puri due its population density , product proliferation and availability of the RelianceFresh stores in these cities.

Scholar Name- Pramod Misra

Supervisor Name- Dr. Jitendra Mohanty

Thesis Title-Improving Efficiency & Quality through Effective Training; an Exploratory Study on Supervisory Leadership Styles in the Infrastructure Sector


IntroductionSuccessful leadership plays a significant part in any organization’s accomplishments. Leadership position is illustrated whenever people operate in communities and is the chief mechanism by which a community or entity forms and determines its priorities and culture. Today, every manager is expected not only to be an effective leader but also a coach and mentor. Construction industry is not an exception in this regard, especially with respect to the frontline employees, i.e., supervisors and foreman. Supervisors in any construction project are expected to exert a positive influence over the daily performance of their workers. Thus, supervisory leadership is defined as behaviour intended to provide guidance, support and coercive feedback for the day‐to‐day activities of work unit members.Construction sector, which include urban development and real estate is recognized as the India’s 2nd largest employer with around 44 million workforces contributes to India’s 9% GDP share. In last few decades, project-driven paradigm along with innovative technical expertise got projected as major traits of an Effective Construction Supervisory Leadership (ECSL). It is responsible for a broad variety of engineering procedures and administrative activities for any construction project (CP). The timely successful accomplishment of whole project along with its proper resource allocation is heavily dependent on ECSL skills, which renders ECSL as CP’s primary decision-maker. Successful execution of projects in the construction industry requires site-supervisory leaders including other frontline leaders’ versatile managerial and technical expertise.Aim & SignificanceThe present research aims to investigate such prevalent issues of Indian construction industry and analyze the significance of supervisory leadership qualities. It presents a comprehensive strategy to identify and gauge the organizational performance (i.e., efficacy and work quality of the employees) via Employee Attitudinal Measures (EAM). It conducts a critical performance assessment of employee attitudes via survey, fact analysis and data interpretation.The site-supervisory leadership, i.e., supervisors including foremen is considered as the front-line leadership employed in the target company. The work also summarizes the role of Supervisory Leadership Practices (SLP) for improving the corporate efficacy. The constructs considered in the current research is based on SLP as independent variables and EAM as dependent variables. Further, each of these two variables has three major pillars with underlying facets, which was used to formulate a customized survey questionnaire having close-ended questions. Based on the survey responses received from the target population, descriptive statistics of each construct was conducted and thoroughly analyzed.The research also empirically correlates the site-supervisory leadership traits with organizational performance and summarizes its impetus to meet the GOI’s expectations to achieve an aggressive and sustainable growth rate of construction sector. The overall aim of the thesis is to suggest ways and methods for improving the organizational efficacy along with yearning for construction best practices. The research is based on the concept of a ‘Black-Box’ design, where the complex inter-relationship between various aspects related to supervisory leadership practices and organizational performance is properly established and thoroughly examined. It is expected that outcomes of the present work will be useful for the development of leadership qualities in supervisor-level staffs in a typical Indian construction industry through refining the leadership skills by effective training interventions and its proper implementation.Research Objectives1. To study various leadership traits at supervisory-level that should be followed in a typical Indian construction company in order to improve its overall effectiveness.2. To examine how supervisory leadership styles impact the employee attitudinal measures, e.g., morale, organizational commitment, performance and work quality in an Indian construction industry.3. To investigate deeply the level of influence and direction of the association-ship between SupervisoryLeadership Practices (SLP) and Employee Attitudinal Measures (EAM).4. To explore, suggest and implement an effective training program for a construction organization targeting the development of the leadership skills of supervisors in a complex working environment.MethodologyInitially, a pilot study was conducted using some basic questionnaire to fine-tune the survey model. Based on the inferences from the pilot study, extensive survey using properly designed set of questionnaires having three separate sections was conducted. First section comprised of basic demographic analysis, the second section consisted of procedure to identify the effective site-supervisory leadership traits and the final section was consisted of the opinion of employees regarding inclusive training initiatives.Participants were told that there is no right or wrong answers and that they should indicate their choice by the appropriate number (ranging from 1 to 5). A score of 3 would indicate that the individual had mixed attitudes about the choice. A higher score indicates the extent to which the organization uses the SLP best practices and otherwise.Firstly, quantitative findings including descriptive statistics for each of the study variables was explored based on the data collected through the survey. This was followed by a Bivariate analysis to test the relationships between the study variables under consideration. The study used correlations to test the association, as well as hierarchal multiple regression analysis to examine the net effect of each of the supervisory leadership practices (SLP) bundles on the employee attitudinal measures (EAM) bundles.The study also reported the correlation coefficients between each bundle of SLP and EAM. All statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Preliminary statistical analyses consisted of descriptive statistics for all study variables, as well as Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency reliability coefficients for the employee questionnaire sub-scales. Then, hypotheses were tested using stepwise hierarchal multiple regression analysis to estimate the net effect of each of the independent variables.The present study also attempts to investigate and provide empirical evidence on the impact of these SLPs on EAMs by answering the research question, “How supervisory leadership practices impact the employee attitudes measures in a typical Indian construction industry measured via overall performance, efficiency & quality-of-work?” These hypotheses were tested using Hierarchical Multiple Linear Regression (HMLR) analysis with an objective to estimate the net effects of each of the independent variables on the dependent variables. These variables were measured using suitably designed questionnaire, which were appropriately prepared based on the unique facets under consideration. Few standard sets of questionnaires were studied as a part of the literature review, which served as a platform for the design and operationalization of the customized questionnaire used in the present survey. These standard questionnaires were “Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ)”; “Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (JSQ)” and “Motivational & Retention Factor Questionnaire (MRQ)”.  FindingThe research revealed that transactional leadership style had a negative influence on one of the EAM, i.e.,Performance & work quality, whereas, transformational leadership style (TFLS) had a positive impact on all the three bundles of EAM. It was also revealed that supervisory leadership practices like supportive leadership, contingent reward and management by exception are extensively being followed in the current organization, whereas the practice of Laissez-Faire leadership skills is least. There were few neutral responses also like articulating a vision, inspirational communication, intellectual stimulation, personal recognition. These responses need to be explored more and related best practices need to be reinstated within the organization.ConclusionIt was concluded that the organizations should pay more attention to employees’ promotion, career growth and equal job responsibilities of all the employees. Leaders should understand whether their leadership style is positively or negatively affecting the employees. The higher-level management needs to train all site-supervisors in transformational leadership skills within the organization and the use of these styles must associate with the employees’ values and concerns.

Scholar Name- Kumari Akriti

Supervisor Name- Dr. Ipseeta Satpathy

Thesis Title-A Comparative Study on Employee Retention in Public & Private Sector Banks


Employee Retention is a process where employees choose to stay with their organization and does not look for other job options while turnover means where employees leaves theorganization due to various reasons. Employee Retention involves implementation of all thestrategies that will lead to retaining the employees for longer duration. The use of internal employability to reduce employee turnover considering the current unemployment rate and compensation paid to the employees. Internal Employability means providing training and goodCareer change opportunity within the organization (Manjavacas A S, 2014, et al). The major reasons for leaving a job is job satisfaction and job alternatives which means if a person is engaged and empowered then he is more likely to stay and if he has option available outside then he less like to stay, attitude of an employee which means an inclination towards an organisation as a whole rather than just for a job (Lee T W, 2017, et al). Organization tries to identify their human assets who contribute in achieving organization’s goal and build their strategies to retain them for maximum tenure.The importance of leadership roles, Organizational reputation, Corporate Social Responsibility and stakeholder culture in retaining the employees. ResponsibleLeadership can be explained as someone who includes everyone in attaining their team goals and provides extended support to their subordinates (Doh J P, 2011,et al).The HR managers of the firm should be able to show the career graph of the employees and what better can be done to retain them and get rid of all their apprehensions during the crisis. The main factors which affected an individual’s decision are Autonomy, Compensation, Employee Engagement, Goal Clarity and Normative Commitment. As if these factors are taken into consideration then organization will be successful in retaining their employees up to some extent and save their investment cost (Ghosh P, 2013, et al).Banking Sector faces a lot of challenges in retaining the employees. Considering the growth opportunities and employability in this sector it has a huge role to play in retaining the employees. There are a lot of factors that can be explored in this study which might be helpful in retaining the employees of the selected banks which will be considered while conducting the study.This study will be a comparative study between public and private sector banks to study the different factors affecting the retention ratio. The study will also cover the impact of Covid-19 on employee retention in the selected public and private banks. The data will be collected from in and around Bhubaneswar. The respondents will be those employees who have experience of more than 2 years in the same organization.This research will help in identifying the factorswhich will further help in fulfilling the gaps that has been identified during the study. The studywill also emphasize and highlight the importance of remedial actions to further improve theretention level of the employees and enhance their quality of work life.Keywords: Employee Retention, Employee Engagement, Internal Employability, Corporate,Banking Sector

Scholar Name- Biswa Bhusan

Supervisor Name- Dr. Ashok Kumar Sar

Thesis Title: – Impact of Training on developing skills: A study of Indian IT industry


IT companies spend 4-6% of revenue annually on training their employees. It is important toquantify the results of training as it takes time to see the impact of training in developing skills. Unless training and staff development are completed, organizations cannot succeed as the skills required for IT and ITES tasks have been changing fast in general and from project to project in particular. Improving skills enhances workers&#39; productivity and adaptability which contributes to the necessary level of success. Training is designed to allow an individual to learn new abilities, expertise, ideas, roles, and conduct quickly and successfully in the employee’s current work. This is possible because of skill enhancement.There are different types of training delivery and there are different types of skills one can acquire. The mode of training even has impact on various types of skills. The research attempted to explore how training is important to develop skills; which is a fundamental aspect of individual and organizational growth in the Indian IT organizations. The study explores the drivers of skills, such as different modes of training and extent of impact of these drivers on different type of relevant skills.For the research purpose, top four IT companies, such as, TCS, CTS, Accenture and Wipro are considered and 408 employees had filled the questionnaire. 389 responses are considered for the study. The responses were recorded in five point Likert scale. To analyze demographic and general information, descriptive statistics is used. To identify the relevant research variables, Factor Analysis (Principal Component Method) is done, Cronbach Alpha calculated for reliability of the constructs and KMO Bartlett test/ PCA are used to measurethe validity of the questionnaire. Hypothesis (which were formed after literature review), were tested using correlation and regression.From the findings, classroom training was found to be most appropriate for developing managerial skills. Similarly, application based training was found to be most appropriate for developing technical skills as well as life skills. Other modes of training were found to beless appropriate for developing skills.This study brings out meaningful insights on skill development for an industry where theknowledge-base is expanding rapidly requiring updated skills to be successful. Insightsgained from the study can be used to customise training to develop skills considering thenature of skills. This can help business and training managers to develop relevant skills moreeffectively and efficiently by mapping the trainees with training modes and skill types.

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School of Civil Engineering (Aug – Sep 2022) Fri, 07 Oct 2022 12:21:00 +0000 KIIT School of Civil Engineering

Journal Paper Teshnizi, E.S., O’Kelly, B.C., Karimiazar, J., Moosazadeh, S., Arjmandzadeh, R. & Pani, A. (2022). Effects of cement kiln dust on physicochemical and geomechanical properties of loess soil, Semnan Province, Iran. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 15(18), 1482. Abstract For problematic soils, conventional (cement and lime) additives can provide the necessary improvements in geomechanical properties […]

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KIIT School of Civil Engineering

Journal Paper

Teshnizi, E.S., O’Kelly, B.C., Karimiazar, J., Moosazadeh, S., Arjmandzadeh, R. & Pani, A. (2022). Effects of cement kiln dust on physicochemical and geomechanical properties of loess soil, Semnan Province, Iran. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 15(18), 1482.


For problematic soils, conventional (cement and lime) additives can provide the necessary improvements in geomechanical properties for various infrastructure constructions. However, these additives have a high environmental impact and they are not always cost-effective, such that potential alternative additives (e.g. obtained as industrial by-products) require investigation. This paper examines cement kiln dust (CKD), obtained as a by-product of cement clinker manufacturing, for improving the geomechanical properties of an Iranian loess soil (sandy silt). Compaction, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), direct shear (DS) strength and soaking durability tests were performed on the loess soil and its mixtures with 5–20% CKD, investigating the effect of curing period (of up to 28 days) on the mobilised strength. Observations from mineralogical and microstructural examinations are also presented in this paper. Compared to the unamended loess, the strength and elastic modulus substantially increased for increasing CKD content and curing period. Improved strength and durability (under soaking) of the soil–CKD mixtures is explained by particle aggregation (of the loess soil), inclusion of the fine CKD material and the action of calcium-derived gel (linking) products. Hence, as well as reducing the disposal problem (of the CKD by product) in the cement industry, the use of this material, as additive for soil stabilisation applications, would provide an effective and sustainable option for improving the geomechanical properties, as demonstrated for the investigated loess soil.

Patent Granted:

Name of the inventors: Dr. Sumit Sagar Hota, Dr. Sudhansu Sekhar Sahoo, Dr. Shanta Chakrabarty, Dr. Deba Prakash Satpathy, Dr. Dillip Kumar Bera, Dr. Auroshis Rout & Dr. Sarat Kumar Panda

Title of the Patent: Earthquake Resistant and Energy Efficient Composite Brick and Method of Preparation Thereof (Indian patent)


The invention discloses a MU seven-point five-level ceramsite composite self-insulation brick, belonging to the field of preparation of composite insulation bricks, wherein the dry apparent density of a finished product composite insulation brick main body is lower than 720kg-800kg/m3The heat conductivity coefficient is 0.2w/m.k, the heat preservation and energy saving requirements of 65 percent can be met without adopting external wall heat preservation, the average strength value in 28 days is more than 7.5-8mpa, other various requirements meet or are better than the requirements of the JG/T407-2013 self-insulation concrete composite building block, an interface agent, special mortar and high-strength light ceramsite are not used in the manufacturing process of the composite heat preservation building block main body, the concrete mixing ratio of the building block main body is optimized by adding a high-efficiency water reducing agent, the process equipment is improved, and the strict control is carried outThe MU7.5 ceramsite composite thermal insulation block meets the requirements of environmental protection and building energy conservation on building materials, and has better thermal insulation, impermeability, frost resistance, light weight and sound insulation compared with the existing brick.

Consultancy Services

InvestigatorsTitle of the Sanctioned ProjectName of Funding AgencyYear
Prof. Malaya Mohanty, Prof. Brundaban Beriha, Prof. Benu Gopal MohapatraTraffic impact assessment for residential apartment project over Plot No.309/1694, Nandan Kanan road, Patia, BhubaneswarPaltronics Allied Industries Pvt. Ltd.2022-23
Prof. Narayan Chandra Moharana, Prof. Tribikram Mohanty, Prof. Asish Kuamr Pani, Prof. Kirti Kanta SahooMaterial Testing (Steel)NCCBM/NBCC2022-23
Prof. Satyajeet NandaMaterial Testing (Soil)NCCBM2022-23
Prof. Benu Gopal Mohapatra, Prof. Brundaban Beriha, Prof. Satyajeet Nanda, Prof. Rana Chattaraj, Prof. Sanjib  MoulickTechnical Support sought for review and recommendation of Tank Foundation for NRL Paradip ProjectIndian Oil Tanking Limited (IOTL)2022-23

Ph.D. Degree Awarded

Student’s Name: Dr. Subodha Kumar Rautaray

Dr. Subodha Kumar Rautaray

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Ashoke Kumar Rath and Dr. Dillip Kumar Bera, School of Civil Engineering

Thesis Title: Study of performance of self compacting geo-polymer concrete by using industrial waste in ambient curing

Abstract of the Thesis:

Besides of water, cement is the most widely utilised building material. The process of making ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is extremely harmful to the environment since it emits a significant amount of CO2. Alternative technologies for the production of cement or cement-like materials are becoming increasingly popular as the cement industry’s environmental problems worsen. SCGC (Self-Compacting Geo-Polymer Concrete) is a unique and superior method of concrete placement that does not require vibration and is made without the use of traditional Portland cement. In this work, M30 self-compacting geo-polymer concrete was created using class F type fly ash with partial substitution of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 percent. With a total pozzolanic content of 420 kg/m3, the mix had a fixed alkali solution to fly ash ratio of 0.45 by mass. The ratio of sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide solution was 2.5, with an additional 12 percent water. By altering the molarity of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) from 8 M to 14 M and Super Plasticizer (SP) from 2 percent to 8 percent, the current study is primarily focused on the fresh and compressive strength properties of SCGC. To evaluate the fresh qualities, test methods such as slump flow, L-box, and V-funnel were used. After 7, 28, and 56 days of curing under ambient conditions in the court yard, the compressive strength of SCGC was tested. The addition of GGBFS to the SCGC mixes aided in the development of considerable compressive strength over all curing durations in ambient conditions. According to studies, increasing the molarity of NaOH lowered the fresh characteristics of SCGC while increasing the compressive strength. The optimized value of molarity and SP were 12 and 6% respectively at 30% replacement of fly ash by GGBFS. The durability and the microstructure study of the specimens were also conducted. It is established from the durability study that, the sulfuric acid attack is the most hazardous among all the chemical attacks and SCGC exhibits better resistivity than SCC in all chemical exposures. Finally, a Pilot study in the field was conducted with M-30 concrete of both SCGC and SCC for comparison of their strength parameters at various ages of maturation.

Student’s Name: Dr. Jagannath Patel

Dr. Jagannath Patel

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Ashoke Kumar Rath and Dr. Dillip Kumar Bera, School of Civil Engineering

Thesis Title: Study of Performance of Pervious Geo-polymer Concrete using Industrial Waste in ambient curing

Abstract of the Thesis:

Every year, the demand for concrete is increasing. It is currently the world’s second most consumed substance, after water. As a result, the environmental challenges associated with the conventional concrete are rapidly expanding. The cement production emits a significant amount of greenhouse gases and consumes a huge amount of energy. Furthermore, as a result of increased urbanization, the earth’s surface is being covered with impermeable concrete due to current construction practices, resulting in a number of environmental challenges such as high storm water runoff, urban heat island, and so on. Impermeable islands and urban flooding are caused by the use of cement-based concrete pavement and other infrastructure with an impermeable and well compacted sub foundation sealed by concrete and related impervious drainage systems in and around towns and cities. As a result, storm water runoff is promptly collected and released to multiple receiving water bodies, bringing a higher amount of contaminants, reducing infiltration, and depleting the ground water table. To overcome these problems, pervious concrete is the alternative solution to be used in the parking areas, low volume road pavement, sidewalks, drive ways, tennis courts etc. in place of normal cement concrete. Normal porous concrete is a special type of concrete with high interconnected porosity, allowing water to flow easily through the pervious concrete and percolate into the sub-grade. On the other hand, one of the best alternatives of cement is alkali activated fly ash binder (geo-polymer) which is an environment-friendly construction material and also a cement-less concrete. Geo-polymer binders are a potential alternative construction material to OPC, as well as an opportunity to convert industrial waste like fly ash, slag, rice husk ash, silica fume, and so on, into valuable products that are now employed in a variety of applications. Geo-polymer is an inorganic polymer created by reacting alumino-silicate minerals with alkali activated liquid. The process of flexibility and low carbon footprint of geo-polymer binders has gained popularity due to its environmental benefits. In this research works an optimized mix proportion has been adopted which was based on the laboratory tests considering various parameters like NaOH concentration, Na2SiO3 to NaOH ratio by mass, fly ash to aggregate ratio, aggregate size, percentage replacement of GGBFS etc. on mechanical strength and hydrological property of pervious geo-polymer concrete. Pervious geo-polymer concrete shows higher strength than pervious cement concrete. In addition, pervious geo-polymer concrete also offers economic benefit over pervious cement concrete.             Two pilot studies were conducted in two different sites basing on the optimized mix design results obtained from laboratory under; one under Rural Works Department, Cuttack, Odisha, India, i.e construction of pervious geo-polymer (PGC) road shoulder at Amanpada rural road and second one was in the approach road of 200 seated OBC hostel at Anugul under SC & ST development department, Govt of Odisha using pervious geo-polymer with ground granulated blast furnace slag (PGCS). The results of the PGC and PGCS tests at two different sites were compared to laboratory test results in this thesis.

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School of Applied Sciences (Aug – Sep 2022) Fri, 07 Oct 2022 12:21:00 +0000 School Of Applied Sciences

Journal Papers Mahato, R., Das, M., Sen, S.S.S. & Nandkeolyar, R. (2022), Hydromagnetic mixed convection unsteady radiative Casson fluid flow towards a stagnation-point with chemical reaction, induced magnetic field, Soret effect, and convective boundary conditions. Heat Transfer-Wiley. Abstract This article presents the two-dimensional mixed convective MHD unsteady stagnation-point flow with heat and mass transfer […]

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School Of Applied Sciences

Journal Papers

  1. Mahato, R., Das, M., Sen, S.S.S. & Nandkeolyar, R. (2022), Hydromagnetic mixed convection unsteady radiative Casson fluid flow towards a stagnation-point with chemical reaction, induced magnetic field, Soret effect, and convective boundary conditions. Heat Transfer-Wiley.


This article presents the two-dimensional mixed convective MHD unsteady stagnation-point flow with heat and mass transfer on chemically reactive Casson fluid towards a vertical stretching surface under the influence of induced magnetic field, thermal radiation, viscous dissipation, heat absorption, and Soret effect with convective boundary conditions. The problem is solved numerically by shooting technique and analyzed the effect of pertinent flow parameters on the velocity, induced magnetic field, temperature, and concentration distributions through graphs. The skin friction coefficient, rate of heat, and mass transfer are computed numerically for both assisting and opposing flows.

  1. Tripathy, R.R., Singha, S. & Sarkar, S. (2022). A review on bio-functional models of catechol oxidase probed by less explored first row transition metals, Journal of Coordination Chemistry, DOI: 10.1080/00958972.2022.2122053 (I.F: 1.756)


Catecholase activity is a biological process in which type-3 active site of a copper enzyme, named catechol oxidase, catalyzes oxidation of o-diphenolic substrates to the corresponding o-quinones coupled with reduction of molecular dioxygen into water. Presence of a hydroxo bridged dicopper(II) core in the structure of catechol oxidase is responsible for its catalytic activity. Interest in mimicking the physicochemical properties of catechol oxidase led to synthesis of a number of model complexes utilizing other transition metal ions, however, the number of studies is remarkably less compared to their copper analogues. This review focuses on catecholase activity of the first row transition metals other than copper to highlight relatively less recognized synthetic and functional models. It includes (i) presentations of some of the proposed mechanisms, (ii) structural descriptions of the relevant catalysts and an attempt to establish a structure–function correlation and (iii) a comparative discussion on catalytic efficiencies of homo and heterometallic complexes. In the summary, this review may provide inspiration for the development of new catalysts and for a more effective approach to draw structure–activity correlations.

  1. Padhy, B. P., Mishra, A. and Nanda, S.: (2022), Approximation of Fourier series of functions in Besov Space by Borel Means, Journal of the Indian Math. Soc., 89(3-4), 373-385. (IF: 0.544)


In the present article, a result on degree of approximation of Fourier series of functions in the Besov space by Borel mean is established.

Ph.D. Degree Awarded

Student’s Name: Dr. Sneha Shriparna Satpathy

Dr. Sneha Shriparna Satpathy

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Chadana Mohanty, School of Applied Sciences

Thesis Title: Cerium oxide nanoparticles mediated combination therapy for colon cancer:  In silico to in vitro approaches

Abstract Despite several medical trials, the clinical prognosis of colon cancer remains unsatisfactory due to disease recurrence. There seems to be a critical need to find new treatment modalities that will improve the disease’s therapy results with minimal to no side effects. Plant-based drugs will facilitative assist the chemo drug 5-Fluorouracil (5 FU) to resolve the challenge of drug resistance.To this end, the in-silico study aims to analyze the binding affinity of different phytochemicals in comparison with 5FU with the wild as well as a mutated form of the targeted protein thymidine phosphorylase (TYPH) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) to enhance the therapeutic strategy. We found that berbamine (BERB) showed the most potent binding affinity with both the targeted proteins (i.e, TYPH and TYMS) for colon cancer therapy. Further, we formulated the cerium oxide nanoparticle (CONPs) loaded with 5FU (5FU-CONPs) and best-docked phytocompound i.e., BERB (BERB-CONPs) and characterize the CONPs by different analytical techniques. Drug entrapment and release were studied by spectrophotometric method. Furthermore, we studied their therapeutic potential against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines in vitro. Different CONPs treated cells were analysed by western blot study to investigate the drug-induced molecular basis of apoptotic pathways. The in vitro analysis advocated that delivering BERB and 5FU in CONPs system in combination was comparatively more effective than native combination under in vitro condition with time due to its enhanced free radical scavenging activity, better cellular uptake and that further resulted in the reduction of cell viability by inducing apoptosis and most importantly, the combined treatment of 5FU with the phytochemical BERB in the CONPs delivery system lowered the dosage administration of 5FU without compromising its therapeutic effectiveness of 5FU while limiting its side effects and toxicity. Hence according to the overall conclusion, this study will look for a powerful phytochemical that might be used as a single agent or in combination with 5FU in CONPs formulation to treat colon cancer in near future.

Student’s Name: Dr. Satya Narayan Sahu

Dr. Satya Narayan Sahu

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Chandana Mohanty and Dr. Rojalin Sahu , School of Applied Sciences

Thesis Title: Boerhavia diffusa plant extract and its impact on mutated proteins involved in nephrotic syndrome: An in silico and in vivo approach


Nephrotic syndromes (NS) is a heterogeneous autosomal recessive renal disorder.  This occurs due to the mutation of different podocytic genes. Almost all patients are resistant to steroid treatment. To avoid side effects due to steroid administration, natural products may be a useful source for novel drug discovery against NS. This study was focused to investigate the potency of Boerhavia diffusa (B.diffusa) plant extracts against NS. Here, we have performed experiments to identify the potency of B.diffusa plant extract against NS. The overall observations demonstrated that B.diffusa plant extracts showed potent curative behaviour as compared to prednisolone and it may use as a potential therapeutics against NS in near future.  

Student’s Name: Dr. Biswajit Mallick

Dr. Biswajit Mallick

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Prakash Kumar Sahu, School of Applied Sciences (Mathematics)

Thesis Title: Numerical Methods for Solving Differential Equations and Integral Equations


The mathematical modelling of various problems in science and engineering gives rise to differential equations and integral equations of both integer and fractional order. Closed form solutions or exact solutions for such equations are only attainable in very few circumstances and on very restricted domains. So, there is an increase in the importance of using efficient numerical methods for solving them. This thesis is devoted to the computation of approximate solutions of differential and integral equations of both integer and fractional order using various numerical methods. The goal is to categorize the selected methods and assess their accuracy and efficiency. We discuss challenges faced by researchers in this field, and we emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary effort for advancing the study on numerical methods for solving differential and integral equations. A numerical method based on orthonormal Bernoulli’s polynomials together with their operational matrices is applied for solving fractional order differential equations of Lane–Emden type. The preliminaries of fractional calculus are presented and operational matrices of fractional derivative are constructed in this work. Convergence analysis of orthonormal Bernoulli’s polynomials is proposed. Later, the fractional Lane–Emden differential equation converted into a system of algebraic equations by applying some suitable collocation points and this system can be simplified by an appropriate numerical method. Next an iterative method, which is a new formulation of the Adomian decomposition method, has been used to solve time-fractional partial differential equations (TFPDEs) with proportional delays. This proposed new technique defines the non-linear term using the new formula of Adomian polynomials and is independent of λ. It does not require any discretization, perturbation, or any restrictive parameters. It is shown that the proposed method converges rapidly to the exact solutions. The Volterra integral equations with proportional delay (VIEPD) have been solved by using Sinc-collocation method. This approach transforms the integral equation to an easily solvable system of algebraic equations. Error bound for this method has been presented. Due to exponential convergence rate, Sinc collocation method is very applicable to solve VIEPD. The obtained approximate solutions are compared with their corresponding exact solutions as well as with the solutions of some other numerical methods available in the literature and the behaviour of the solutions are shown in graphical forms. Numerical results discussed in this work suggest that these techniques are reliable, convenient, and attractive for computational use in modern times. Illustrative examples are discussed to show the validity and applicability of the present methods.  

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School of Biotechnology (Aug – Sep 2022) Fri, 07 Oct 2022 12:21:00 +0000 KIIT School Of Biotechnology

Journal Papers Paine, S. K., Rout, U. K., Bhattacharyya, C., Parai, D., Alam, M., Nanda, R. R., Tripathi, D., Choudhury, P., Kundu, C. N., Pati, S., Bhattacharya, D., & Basu, A. (2022). Temporal dynamics of oropharyngeal microbiome among SARS-CoV-2 patients reveals continued dysbiosis even after Viral Clearance. NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 8(1), 67. Abstract […]

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KIIT School Of Biotechnology

Journal Papers

  1. Paine, S. K., Rout, U. K., Bhattacharyya, C., Parai, D., Alam, M., Nanda, R. R., Tripathi, D., Choudhury, P., Kundu, C. N., Pati, S., Bhattacharya, D., & Basu, A. (2022). Temporal dynamics of oropharyngeal microbiome among SARS-CoV-2 patients reveals continued dysbiosis even after Viral Clearance. NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 8(1), 67.


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has posed multiple challenges to global public health. Clinical features and sequela of SARS-CoV-2 infection include long-term and short-term complications often clinically indistinguishable from bacterial sepsis and acute lung infection. Post-hoc studies of previous SARS outbreaks postulate secondary bacterial infections with microbial dysbiosis. Oral microbial dysbiosis, particularly the altered proportion of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, has shown to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Oropharynx and lung share similar kinds of bacterial species. We hypothesized that alteration in the Human Oropharyngeal Microbiome in SARS-CoV-2 patients can be a clinical indicator of bacterial infection related complications. We made a longitudinal comparison of oropharyngeal microbiome of 20 SARS-CoV-2 patients over a period of 30 days; at three time points, with a 15 days interval; contrasting them with a matched group of 10 healthy controls. Present observation indicates that posterior segment of the oropharyngeal microbiome is a key reservoir for bacteria causing pneumonia and chronic lung infection on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Oropharyngeal microbiome is indeed altered and its α-diversity decreases, indicating reduced stability, in all SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals right at Day-1; i.e. within ~24 h of post clinical diagnosis. The dysbiosis persists long-term (30 days) irrespective of viral clearance and/or administration of antibiotics. There is a severe depletion of commensal bacteria phyla like Firmicutes among the patients and that depletion is compensated by higher proportion of bacteria associated with sepsis and severe lung infection from phyla Proteobacteria. We also found elevated proportions of certain genus that have previously been shown to be causal for lung pneumonia in studies of model organisms and human autopsies’ including Stenotrophomonas, Acenetobactor, Enterobactor, Klebsiella and Chryseobacterium that were to be elevated among the cases. We also show that responses to the antibiotics (Azithromycin and Doxycycline) are not uniform for all individuals.

  1. Lavudi K, Harika VS, Kokkanti RR, Patchigolla S, Sinha A, Patnaik S & Penchalaneni J (2022). 2-Dimensional in vitro culture assessment of ovarian cancer cell line using cost effective silver nanoparticles from Macrotyloma uniflorum seed extracts. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. Aug 16;10:978846. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2022.978846.


Our research focused on generating AgNPs using Macrotyloma uniflorum (MU) seed extracts and studied their efficacy in combating tumor growth using the 2-Dimensional method for ovarian cancer cell line-PA-1. Characterization studies including a UV-visible spectrophotometer confirmed the surface plasmon resonance peak of 436 nm. Particle size determination data validated the nanoparticle diameter of 91.8 nm. Synthesized AgNPs possess a negative charge of -28.0 mV, which was confirmed through the zeta potential study. Structural characterization studies including XRD determined the crystal phase of AgNPs at four distant peaks at 2θ (38.17, 44.36, 64.52, and 77.46) and were assigned to 111, 200, 220, and 311 planes of the FCC. FTIR studies have confirmed the presence of O-H, N-H, C=O, ethers, C-Br, and C-I groups in AgNPs respectively. DPPH study has confirmed the presence of free radicles and we observed that at 500 μg/ml concentration, 76.08% of free radicles were formed which shows their efficiency. MTT assay shows the efficacy of MU-AgNPs in reducing the cell viability. At lower concentrations of MU-AgNP, 66% viability was observed and 9% of viability was observed at higher dose. ROS production (21%) was observed using MU-AgNPs with respect to 0.45% in controls, which affirms the capacity to induce DNA damage via apoptosis. Standard drug camptothecin generated 26% of ROS production which confirms higher potential of AgNPs in inducing DNA damage in tumor cells without causing lethality to the healthy cells. Further, the Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) study using a standard Caspase-3 marker confirms the generation of apoptotic bodies using two different concentrations of MU-AgNPs. At 40 μg, 64% of apoptotic cell death was observed, whereas, using 20 μg, 23% of apoptosis was recorded via fluorescent intensity. Propidium iodide-based Cell cycle study has shown a significant decrease in G0/G1 phase compared to control (88.8%), which further confirmed the apoptotic induction. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) studies using JC-1 dye, showed a significant increase in green fluorescence owing to lowered membrane potential, thus ensuring the breakdown of mitochondrial potential compared to untreated and standard drugs. With the obtained results, we are concluding that MU-AgNPs has a tremendous capacity to suppress the ovarian cancer cell proliferation in vitro by inducing DNA damage and apoptosis.

  1. Chatterjee, S., Dhal, A. K., Paul, S., Sinha, S., Das, B., Dash, S. R., & Kundu, C. N. (2022). Combination of Talazoparib and Olaparib enhanced the Curcumin-mediated apoptosis in oral cancer cells by PARP-1 trapping. Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology.


Inhibition of Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerases (PARP) results in blocking of DNA repair cascades that eventually leads to apoptosis and cancer cell death. PARP inhibitors (PARPi) exhibit their actions either by inhibiting PARP-induced PARylation and/or by trapping PARP at the DNA damage site. But, the mechanism of PARPi-mediated induction of cellular toxicity via PARP-trapping is largely unknown. The cellular toxicity of PARPi [Talazoparib (BMN) and/or Olaparib (Ola)] was investigated in oral cancer cells and the underlying mechanism was studied by using in vitro, in silico, and in vivo preclinical model systems. The experimental data suggested that induction of DNA damage is imperative for optimal effectiveness of PARPi. Curcumin (Cur) exhibited maximum DNA damaging capacity in comparison to Resveratrol and 5-Flurouracil. Combination of BMN+Ola induced cell death in Cur pre-treated cells at much lower concentrations than their individual treatments. BMN+Ola treatment deregulated the base excision repair (BER) cascade, potentiated PARP-trapping, caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Cur pre-treated cells in a much more effective manner than their individual treatments. In silico data indicated the involvement of different amino acid residues which might play important roles in enhancing the BMN+Ola-mediated PARP-trapping. Moreover, in vivo mice xenograft data also suggested the BMN+Ola-mediated enhancement of apoptotic potentiality of Cur. Thus, induction of DNA damage was found to be essential for optimal functioning of PARPi and BMN+Ola combination treatment enhanced the apoptotic potentiality of Cur in cancer cells by enhancing the PARP-trapping activity via modulation of BER cascade.

  1. Paul, S., Sinha, S., & Kundu, C. N. (2022). Targeting cancer stem cells in the tumor microenvironment: An emerging role of PARP inhibitors. Pharmacological research, 184, 106425.


Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small population of cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME), which are responsible for metastasis, angiogenesis, drug resistance, and cancer relapse. Understanding the key signatures and resistance mechanisms of CSCs may help in the development of novel chemotherapeutic strategies to specifically target CSCs in the TME. PARP inhibitors (PARPi) are known to enhance the chemosensitivity of cancer cells to other chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting the DNA repair pathways and chromatin modulation. But their effects on CSCs are still unknown. Few studies have reported that PARPi can stall replication fork progression in CSCs. PARPi also have the potential to overcome chemoresistance in CSCs and anti-angiogenic potentiality as well. Previous reports have suggested that epigenetic drugs can synergistically ameliorate the anti-cancer activities of PARPi through epigenetic modulations. In this review, we have systematically discussed the effects of PARPi on different DNA repair pathways with respect to CSCs and also how CSCs can be targeted either as monotherapy or as a part of combination therapy. We have also talked about how PARPi can help in reversal of chemoresistance of CSCs and the role of PARPi in epigenetic modifications to hinder cancer progression. We have also elaborated on the aspects of research that need to be investigated for development of successful therapeutic interventions using PARPi to specifically target CSCs in the TME.

  1. Sinha, S., Chatterjee, S., Paul, S., Das, B., Dash, S. R., Das, C., & Kundu, C. N. (2022). Olaparib enhances the Resveratrol-mediated apoptosis in breast cancer cells by inhibiting the homologous recombination repair pathway. Experimental cell research, 420(1), 113338.


Although sensitization of BRCA-mutated, homologous recombination (HR)-deficient breast cancer cells through PARP inhibitor is widely studied, not much is known about the treatment of BRCA-wild-type, HR-proficient breast cancer. Here, we aim to investigate whether a bioactive compound, Resveratrol (RES), can induce DNA double-strand breaks in HR-proficient breast cancer cells and Olaparib (OLA), a PARP inhibitor, can enhance the RES-mediated apoptosis by deregulating the HR repair pathway. The detailed mechanism of anti-cancer action of RES + OLA combination in breast cancer has been evaluated using in vitroex vivo, and in vivo preclinical model systems. OLA increased RES-mediated DNA damage, downregulated the HR pathway proteins, caused a late S/G2 cell cycle arrest, enhanced apoptosis and cell death in RES pre-treated breast cancer cells at much lower concentrations than their individual treatments. Direct measurement of HR pathway activity using a GFP plasmid-based assay demonstrated reduced HR efficiency in I-SceI endonuclease-transfected cells treated with OLA. Moreover, RES + OLA treatment also caused significant reduction in PARP1-mediated PARylation and efficiently trapped PARP1 at the DNA damage site. Upon RES treatment, PARylated PARP1 was found to interact with BRCA1, which then activated other HR pathway proteins. But after addition of OLA in RES pre-treated cells, PARP1 could not interact with BRCA1 due to inhibition of PARylation. This resulted in deregulation of HR pathway. To further confirm the role of BRCA1 in PARP1-mediated HR pathway activation, BRCA1 was knocked down that caused complete inhibition of HR pathway activity, and further enhanced apoptosis after RES + OLA treatment in BRCA1-silenced cells. In agreement with in vitro data, similar experimental results were obtained in ex vivo patient-derived breast cancer cells and in vivo xenograft mice. Thus, RES + OLA combination treatment enhanced breast cancer cell death by causing excessive DNA damage and also simultaneously inhibiting the HR pathway.

Grant or Project Awarded

(Both Sponsored Research and Consultancy)

Title of the Sanctioned Project: “Rural Bioresource Complex for tubers & millets in Kandhamal, Odisha”

Principal Investigator’s Name: Prof. Vishakha Raina, Professor, School of Biotechnology, KIIT

Co-Principal Investigator’s Name: Dr. Sandeep Kumar Panda, Assistant Professor, School of Biotechnology, KIIT

Surekha Routray, Head- Social Incubations & CSR, KIIT-TBI, KIIT

Prof. Mrutyunjay Suar, Professor, School of Biotechnology, KIIT

Name of Funding Agency: Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India

Sanctioned Amount of Project: Rs. 113.0854 Lakhs for 2 years

Abstract of the Project

Establishment of the Rural Bio-resource Cluster for the dissemination of 3 core biotechnological innovation technologies by value addition to millets and sweet potato. Knowledge dissemination of the selected technologies to 500 SC/ST & rural women spread across 15 selected villages in the Kandhamal District and Strengthening of 10 Self Help Groups (SHG’s) as well as creation of 5 shelf-help groups (SHG’s). Real-time validation of one Complete business cycle of 3 pilot projects on the selected technologies


Student’s Name: Dr. Berhanu Girma

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Gopal Chowdhary, School of Biotechnology

Co-supervisor’s name: Dr. Sasmita Mohanty (Professor), Department of Biotechnology Rama Devi Women’s University

Thesis Title: Isolation and characterization of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria from rice fields of Konark and investigating their efficacy in imparting abiotic stress tolerance


Agricultural soil is the home of crop productivity. However, 20% of the world’s farming land and 33% of the irrigated farmland are salt-affected. Use plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can make mineral nutrient solubilization for crop plants and improve plant tolerances towards abiotic-stresses. The endemic PGPR strain/s which could impart saline stress tolerance to rice plants were isolated from the rhizosphere of rice from the Konark area. The area under investigation lies in the vicinity of the sea and hence has a persistent problem of saline stress for agriculture. In the current work, five potential rhizobacterial strains (KBG1, KBG7, KBG6.2, KBG3 and KBG4) were isolated and found to be positive for PGPR traits and exhibited abiotic stress tolerance properties. KBG6.2 and KBG1 were found to be performing better and hence, their genome was sequenced. They were found to belong to Klebsiella sp. The genome sequence of the strains contained genes responsible for phosphate solubilization, ACC-deaminase activity, IAA production and root colonization. The PGPR strains KBG6.2 and KBG1 were found to enhance the saline stress tolerance of rice seedlings as demonstrated by the morphological, biochemical and molecular parameters. These PGPR strains could be used as formulation and used in filed conditions to impart saline tolerance to rice seedlings in near future. 

Student’s Name: Dr. Janu Newar

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Archana Ghatak, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title:  Studies on gastropod adhesive mucus and its potential for making biocompatible adhesive hydrogel


In nature, invertebrate animals can attach to different solid materials. For example, snails secrete sticky mucus in order to attach to vertical surfaces. In this work, the characterization of adhesive and wound-healing properties of this mucus has been carried out. The corresponding results and discussions are presented in this thesis. This work started with the screening of different gastropods from the eastern part of India, which resulted in the selection of one snail and a slug species.  Mucus samples were then collected for performing further experiments. The mucus was mixed with buffers of different pH and subjected to adhesion tests. Our results showed that the adhesion strength of the mucus was maximum in presence of an alkaline buffer. Next, we investigated the role of metal ions in improving the underwater adhesive property of the mucus. It was found that this property was most effective in presence of the zinc ion. Finally, component biomolecules of the adhesive were purified and were used for the preparation of an adhesive hydrogel by in vitro method. We showed this hydrogel to be dual-active with adhesive and wound-healing properties. We hope that the insights gained from these studies will help us in the future to design bio-mimetic adhesives suitable for various biomedical applications.

Student’s Name: Dr. Kalyani Naik

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Snehasish Mishra, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title:  Effective Microbial formulation to enhance agricultural productivity and recycle agrowastes


Increased eco-concerns dissuade using chemicals in agriculture, and environmental technologists suggest organic manure practices instead. Using organic manure alone may not suffice to meet the escalating food demand. Applying crop growth stimulating substances including Effective Microbes with or without organic manuring has been in focus recently. These microbes would enhance soil biomineralisation, enhance the soil profile and provide nutrients to ensure crop wellbeing. SOMRE (an Indole-derived biochemical nano-formulation) is a root growth promoter claimed to enhance root growth, cell division and cell differentiation, thereby enhancing plant growth and productivity. Rice, Sunflower, Okra, Green gram, Black gram and Amaranthus were tried as test crops under controlled (trial) conditions. The effect of the microbial consortium (MC) was also assessed on two vegetable crops (okra & tomato). It significantly increased shoot height, plant height, leaf length & leaf width at three-day intervals, and fresh weight, dry weight and root length at the end of the study period. Lab studies confirmed the efficacy and promises of microbial consortium. It illustrated a healthy biotic and abiotic interaction to benefit the crop. The future prospects and field applications hint at the reduction in the excess use of chemicals by using EM and/or biofertilisers. The diverse combination of EM might replace chemical fertilisers greatly. Crops may give better yield while keeping the soil healthy. The microflora of a particular type of soil can be maintained also which might be an ecological balance need. EM-based formulations not only help protect plants from several pathogens by acting as biocontrol agents but also trigger different biological promotion effects in various plant growth parameters. Most EMs improve plant growth parameters. The various type biotic and abiotic stresses on crops may be researched based on this work. Kalyani Naik was also a student of KISS (Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences) earlier, and she received Rajiv Gandhi fellowship during her research work based on the innovative research proposal she had submitted immediately after her post-graduation under the mentorship of Dr Snehasish Mishra.  

Student’s Name: Dr. Aregitu Mekuriaw Arega

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Rajani Kanta Mahapatra, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title:  Discovery of Potent Subunit Vaccine and Therapeutic Candidates against Tuberculosis: In-silico Approach and its Preliminary Validation in Ex-vivo Model


Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality from solitary communicable diseases and continues as a public health and economic threat mainly in several low-income nations with high TB burdens. TB is a treatable disease but the lengthy duration of treatment with poor patient compliance results in a low treatment success rate, lead to regenerate various forms of drug-resistant TB. Thus, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant TB and lack of efficacy on the existing TB vaccine makes TB disease management more difficult. Therefore, finding new targets for vaccines, chemo-therapeutics, and diagnostics are very important. The current study was focused on computational approaches to scrutinize Mtb.H37Rv 4049 proteins and identify the important novel vaccine and therapeutic targets antigens against TB. As a result, five potent novel hypothetical protein targets against tuberculosis were identified. Two of these proteins (Rv2599 and Rv1987) were investigated as TB subunit vaccine and one (Rv1566c (RipD)) for TB therapeutic drug target candidate. Both of the subunit vaccine candidate proteins antigenic suitability was validated with preliminary in- ex-vivo models via candidate proteins encoded gene clone. The clone success on ampicillin marker pET21b and kanamycin marker pET21a (+) plasmids was tested with insert release and sequence. Furthermore, the recombinant protein (rRV1987- pET21a (+)) was over-expressed on BL21 (DE3) 0.5 M IPTG induced culture and purified with Histag Ni-NTA Colum. The rRV1987 protein cytotoxicity assay shown no cytotoxic effect on mouse macrophage cell lines up to 50 g/ml at concentrations and capable of inducing essential cytokine proliferation. The TB therapeutic intervention targeted protein, Rv1566c (RipD) is NlpC/P60 domain family proteins and conserved in the Mtb complex’s multi-species. The NlpC/P60 domain containing Mtb proteins are functioned as catalytically inactive Peptidoglycan (PG)-binding. The HSTV protein-ligand binding energy analysis suggested that MMV687700 is the best compound among 116 Pathogen-Box molecules. Interestingly, the identified compound, MMV687700, ADMET and an in-vitro inhibitory effect analysis reported the MMV687700 inhibition potential. In conclusion, in the present study, the in-silico scrutiny revealed the protein subunit vaccine and drug target antigenic quality and supportive for the presented and the proceeding ex-vivo preliminary investigation.

Student’s Name: Dr. Ananya Nanda

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Sasmita Nayak, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title:  Mechanistic understanding of the roles of conserved histidines and transition metals on Mycobacterium tuberculosis SufB intein splicing: Applications in Gold Nanoparticle-based enhanced intein splicing system and intein-based biosensor for toxic metals


The present study focuses on the SufB protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an essential platform for Fe-S cluster biogenesis. We report splicing and cleavage reaction of full-length Mtu SufB protein with characterization of two distal histidines in the N-extein region, His-5 and His-38, conserved in mycobacteria, and archaea, where SUF is the exclusive system for Fe-S cluster biogenesis. In vitro splicing and cleavage analyses of Mtu SufB exhibited significant attenuation of splicing and N-cleavage reactions in presence of Pt, Cu, and Zn and precursor accumulation induced by Fe. UV-Vis, ICP-OES, Tryptophan fluorescence, DLS, and mutagenesis suggested interaction and plausible metal-chelating residues within Mtu SufB. Current research hints at the host regulatory mechanism on SufB splicing in native environment and a target for present-day antimycobacterial agents. Additionally, the regulatory effect of environmental toxic metals on SufB protein was investigated. Enhancement in proteins biological activity after interaction with nanoparticles motivated us to investigate the effect of AuNPs on SufB protein splicing with more than 50% increase in splicing and 45% increase in N-terminal cleavage efficiency. Sophisticated techniques suggested the potent interaction of SufB-AuNPs. This enhancement in N-terminal cleavage and splicing reactions can have potential implementations from rapid drug delivery system to contemporary protein purification system.  

Student’s Name: Dr. Sitabja Mukherjee

Supervisor’s Name: Prof. Santosh K. Kar, School of Biotechnology

Co-Supervisor: Dr. Sasmita Nayak, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title: Development of a combination therapy using anti-Malarials and anti-inflammatory compounds for curing Cerebral Malaria in mice


In malaria, anti-parasite immune response of the host may lead to dysregulated inflammation causing severe neuropathology arising from extensive damage to the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). Use of anti-malarial drugs alone can control parasitemia but it cannot reduce pathology if chronic inflammation has already set in. In the present study, we have tested the efficacy of a new oral artemsinin based combination therapy (ACT) regimen using a combination of anti-malarial compounds with natural, anti-inflammatory compounds in C57BL/6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA. Oral treatment with our ACT controlled parasitemia and prevented BBB damage from a heightened pro-inflammatory response by modulating the Th1, Th2 and Treg immune responses.                      

Student’s Name: Dr. Prity Sahay

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Rahul Modak, School of Biotechnology

Co-Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Aparna Rao, LV Prasad Eye Institute

Thesis Title: Tear proteome, cytokine and MMP signatures in pseudoexfoliation stages and clinical variants

Abstract of the Thesis:

Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG) is a unique age- related systemic ailment well-defined by means of the formation of white-like deposits of fibrinogen granular extracellular material in several intra and extraocular organs. An excessive exfoliation material deposit is abundant in anterior segment of the eye such as the lens capsule, iris and ciliary bodies. Since this disease is systemic it is also found in the liver, and other visceral organs. The global illness frequency of PXF is predicted to be 10–20% of the population above 40yr. and rising to 40% in those over the age of 60 years. At the beginning of her work, LV Prasad Eye hospital electronic medical records (EMR) to identify consecutive fresh cases seen during April 2013 to March 2015. She identified all cases of PXF, pigmentary PXF, ocular hypertension (OHT) and PXG and performed a demographic analysis of the disease. Label free LC MS/MS mass spectroscopy identified 1062 unique proteins in tears from patients with different clinical variants and stages of PXF [classical PXF, pigmentary PXF (Pig. PXF), ocular hypertension (OHT) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG)] compared with controls (no evidence of PXF or any ocular disease) in which most of the proteins included was involved in protein binding or transforming growth factor (TGFβ) signaling pathway. Finally she deciphered the role of TGFβ1, MMP-9 and FN1 in different ocular structures of the eye including tears, tenons capsule, aqueous humor, lens capsule and serum samples of different PXF and PXG cases compared with cataract eye served as control. She reported that TGFβ1 and MMP-9 protein concentrations were high in PXG but MMP-9 activity was reduced in eyes with glaucoma. The cytokine signatures were different in different clinical disease stages with PXF being characterized by maximal elevation of inflammatory cytokines. The FN1 expression seems to suggest an increased ECM production in severe stages which represented an insoluble form in protein aggregates which was however not found to be correlated with increased TGF expression suggesting an alternate regulation of ECM production in severe disease stages. This concluded that the excessive expression of these molecules in the tissues of different ocular structure represent excessive deposition of protein aggregates which is parallel with the results of human tear sample and may therefore be used as a signal for onset of glaucoma or for identifying eyes at risk of developing glaucoma in PXF.  

Student’s Name: Dr. Rahul Chatterjee

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Vishakha Raina, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title: “Exploring the Staphylococcus aureus proteome: Focus on vaccine antigenic targets”

Abstract of the Thesis:

Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide with a very high mortality and morbidity rate and it has been listed as one of the ESKAPE pathogens by the World Health Organization which requires urgent efforts to control its spread among humans and animals. This study sought to develop peptide-based vaccines against S. aureus using immunoinformatics techniques that can elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses. SdrD and SdrE are S. aureus proteins that promote adherence to host cells and fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPA & FnBPB) which are involved in bacterial adherence to host cells and invasion of host cells were used as targets. Immunoinformatics techniques were used to select highly immunogenic and conserved B-cell and T-cell epitopes against the bacterial proteins, along with suitable adjuvants and linkers. The epitopes were tested for toxicity, allergenicity, and binding affinity to HLA alleles, and the screened epitopes were used to multi-epitopic vaccine constructs using suitable linkers and adjuvants. Simulation studies on vaccine constructs were also modelled in silico and their stability was assessed through molecular dynamics simulation revealed translational potency, reliability, expression levels and immune memory generation.

Student’s Name: Dr. Ajit Kumar Dhal

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Rajani Kanta Mahapatra, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title: Design of novel therapeutics against Cryptosporidium parvum: an in-silico approach.

Abstract of the Thesis:

Cryptosporidiosis has great public health implications for the human population. It is a major disease of zoonotic diarrhea, particularly in children which is primarily caused by Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis. It is also the second most serious cause of diarrheal disease and death in children and prevails in lower-income communities with limited access to sanitation and hygiene. There are no vaccines available for this parasite, and nitazoxanide is the only drug approved by the FDA for cryptosporidiosis that displays moderate effectiveness in immunocompromised individuals. Cryptosporidium species infect by invading the microvillus layer of the gastrointestinal epithelium of a large range of vertebrate hosts, including humans. From different literature studies, we found that several screening techniques were used to classify new anti-cryptosporid compounds and developments in Cryptosporidium culture cultivation. Different in silico methods are documented for the development of drugs due to their reduction of expenses and time required for developing new therapeutic candidates and treatment regimens. The present research mainly recognizes and validates important and novel therapeutic targets in Cryptosporidium through functional and structural analyses due to the lack of knowledge about its biochemical and metabolic pathways. The therapeutic potential of these diagnostic targets was found with great potential to provide insights into the creation of new drugs or vaccines for the treatment and prophylaxis of human and animal cryptosporidiosis. In this study, we characterized important proteins of C. parvum like LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase), Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 6 (CDPK6), Elongation Factor 2 (EF-2), and lead molecules were screened by different computational approaches. Another important objective of the thesis is to explore potential vaccine candidates through the design and validation of a multi-epitope subunit vaccine by an immunoinformatics-based strategy. The novel outcomes were also further validated through Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. Findings from this study could facilitate the selection of proteins that may serve as potential drug targets and vaccine candidates to efficiently tackle the growing threat of cryptosporidiosis in the future.

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School of Mechanical Engineering (Aug – Sep 2022) Fri, 07 Oct 2022 12:21:00 +0000 School of Mechanical Engineering

Journal Papers 1. Mukherjee, S., Mishra, P.C., Aljuwayhel, N.F., Ali, N. & Chaudhuri, P. (2022). Thermo-fluidic performance of SiO2–ZnO/water hybrid nanofluid on enhancement of heat transport in a tube: Experimental results. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 182, 107808. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2022.107808. (Impact Factor: 4.779) Abstract This paper reports an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer […]

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School of Mechanical Engineering

Journal Papers

1. Mukherjee, S., Mishra, P.C., Aljuwayhel, N.F., Ali, N. & Chaudhuri, P. (2022). Thermo-fluidic performance of SiO2–ZnO/water hybrid nanofluid on enhancement of heat transport in a tube: Experimental results. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 182, 107808. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2022.107808. (Impact Factor: 4.779)


This paper reports an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and flow performance of silica-zinc oxide (SiO2–ZnO)/water hybrid nanofluid (HNF) flowing inside a tube with constant heat flux at different Reynolds number (Re) from 7743 to 23,228. A well-stabilized SiO2–ZnO/water HNF with 0.025–0.10weight fractions (φ) was produced via two-step method. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of HNF were measured. The convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of the HNF were determined. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of HNF showed notable enhancements as compared to water. The convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) of HNF enhanced with increasing φ and Re. A maximum of 29.44% enhancement in CHTC was obtained with φ of 0.10 at Re = 20,131 when compared to water. Further, the friction factor and pressure drop of HNF increased with increasing φ. A maximum of 17.45% increase in friction factor and a maximum increase of 24% in pressure drop were recorded with φ of 0.10 at Re = 23,228 as compared to water. New CHTC and friction factor correlations of high accuracies (R2 > 90%) have been proposed. A Figure of Merit (FOM) was drawn to describe the thermal performance of HNF. Based on the analysis, the optimum thermal performance was achieved with φ of 0.10 at Re = 20,131.

2. Khadanga, V., Mukherjee, S., Mishra, P.C. & Chakrabarty, S. (2022). Heat transport performance of nanoparticles in gases: case study of Al2O3 nanoaerosol. Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 95(5), 1232- 1239.


The concept of nanofluids has already shown that the heat transfer potential of traditional working fluids could be improved by dispersing various nanosized particles in them. Up to now, liquids are used as the base materials and dispersed nanoparticles are solid. In the present paper, we study solid nanoparticles dispersed in a gaseous medium (nanoaerosol), and the behavior of heat transfer of nanoparticles mixed with a gas flow is analyzed. Nanoparticles of Al2O3 mixed with an air stream are considered inside a tube subjected to a constant heat flux of 696.534 kW/m2. The timescale analysis of heat transfer in a nanoparticle–gas mixture is carried out. The effect of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number Re on the convective aerosol heat transfer coefficient and the Nusselt number is analyzed. The timescale study shows that conduction is dominant in a nanoaerosol. The maximum enhancements in the convective aerosol heat transfer coefficient and the Nusselt number are obtained as 59 and 55.27%, respectively, with increasing particle volume fraction in the range of 0.002–0.01.

3. Agarwal, M., & Singh, S. (2022). Upper bound analysis of closed-die forging of eccentrically-located SiCp AMC preforms. Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 25(2), 275-285.


The paper presents analysis of closed-die forging of eccentrically-located SiCp AMC cylindrical preforms at cold conditions using ‘UpperBound0 approach. The deformation has been considered in two subsequent stages, i.e. frees barreling and constrained deformation stages. Second stage was again divided into two modes, i.e. unilateral and bilateral constrained deformations. For basic experimental analysis, the preforms were fabricated via liquid metal stir casting manufacturing route using LM6 Aluminium alloy and Silicon Carbide particles as reinforcements. These preforms were located eccentrically in the closed-die with respect to die axis and subsequently forged into double-hub flange components. The generalized expressions for velocity field, strain rates, various energy dissipations and average forging load were formulated for all the above deformation stage and results were compared with the experimental findings. It is expected that the present work will be useful for the analysis of the precision net-shape flashless closed-die forging operations at cold conditions.

4. Dey, S., Mishra, R., Mohapatra, M., & Sabut, S. (2022). Micro active catheters and embolization techniques: a brief review based on design and working efficacy. Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications, 34 (4), 2230001.


Micro catheters are thin-walled devices gaining pivotal importance in the field of micro invasive surgeries. The need for an efficient design of a micro catheter with the enhancement of its prime characteristics like-kink resistance, lower bending response, increased perumbular capacities, etc., has been the key parameters for research among biomedical engineers. The article highlights the nuances in the technology in the fabrication of micro active catheters and the procedure and necessity of embolization in the process of catheterization. Efficacies of different designs of micro active catheters were studied based on a variety of clinical data trials by several researchers and doctors. Superior materials capable of enhancing the torque efficacy of the device like auxetic materials and their effect on bending angles were studied. Clinical trials were undertaken based on various designs and approaches for the device and the critical characteristics were studied. The micro active catheter with guide-wire shows maximum bending angle and considerable torque making it ideal for micro invasive procedures in constricted as well as divergent blood vessels. 

5. Mohapatra, B., Tripathy, S., Singhal, D., & Saha, R. (2022). Significance of digital technology in manufacturing sectors: Examination of key factors during COVID-19. Research in Transportation Economics, 93, 101134. (Impact Factor: 2.904)


The Covid-19 pandemic has been the center of human existential chaos throughout the world, which also has affected the manufacturer in an extraordinary and unexpected way. With the decline in demand, supply, and workforce the industries are driven into the gloom. The concerned research objective is to explore the factors which impact manufacturing throughout the world during the epidemic of Covid-19. Further, it delineates the usage of advanced digital technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), big data analytics (BDA), and internet of things (IoT) to bring on solutions/approaches to evolving to pandemic-constrained manufacturing. An overall of twelve key factors is determined from extensive literature reviews which are categorized into challenges and solutions. Here, ISM methodology has been used to establish the interrelationship among identified twelve challenges and solutions. Further, MICMAC analysis has categorized them according to their driving and dependence power. The consequences display the absence of autonomous factors whilst efficient supply chain, centralized decision making, product diversification, and JIT along with revenue generation turn out to be significant dependant factors. The facilitators like digital technologies are the pre-cursors to the ultimate solution of revenue generation and termed preliminary solutions. The outcomes of this research will suggest eventual policy recommendations for industry leaders to progress manufacturing within Covid-19 constraints. It will offer a sturdy base for manufacturers around the world to tune to the new digital transformation of the production scenario.

6. Sahoo, T.K., & Ghose, P. (2022). Effect of Inlet Swirl on Combustion Performance and Soot Formation of a Turbulent Methane-Air Non-Premixed Flame. Jordan Journal of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, 16 (2), 309 – 318.


In the present study, the effect of swirl intensity on flame temperature, radiation heat flux, soot formation, dispersion, and other major species concentrations were investigated for methane-air non-premixed combustion. Harwell standard furnace has been chosen for computational modeling. Eddy dissipation combustion model is used to evaluate reaction rate considering one-step global combustion reaction mechanism for methane. Standard k-ε turbulent model, discrete ordinate (DO) radiation model, and Moss-Brookes soot models are used for simulation. The weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) is employed to calculate the radiation absorption coefficient. A fair agreement has been observed between published experimental and simulation results. The numerical results show that as the swirl intensity increases, the radial component of the flow increases, hence the flame becomes wider. Consequently, the temperature distribution, soot formation, and the species mass concentration are also strongly influenced by the swirl intensity. It has also been observed that the flame temperature decreases with the consideration of soot generation due to an increase in radiation heat loss of eight percent. Incomparable to any swirl, the average wall heat flux increases to 62.72% when the swirl number is 5.

7. Sahoo, B., Sharma, N., Sahoo, B., Ramteke, P.M., Panda, S.K., & Mahmoud, S.R. (2022, October). Nonlinear vibration analysis of FGM sandwich structure under thermal loadings. Structures, 44, 1392-1402. (Impact Factor: 4.010)


The geometrically nonlinear thermal frequencies of the functionally graded (FG) sandwich structures are predicted numerically in the current work considering the variable temperature distributions (linear and nonlinear). For numerical analysis of the FG sandwich structure, an in-house finite element code has been developed in MATLAB using the higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) and Green–Lagrange nonlinear strain kinematics. The governing equation of motion for the graded sandwich structure is obtained using Hamilton’s principles, and the direct iterative method is used to predict the nonlinear vibration response of the sandwich structure. The temperature distributions along the thickness of the sandwich structure are considered. Temperature dependent material properties are considered in the present work for computation of frequency responses under thermal environment. The material properties are described in accordance with the power-law distribution. The current models are initially validated with the published results. The influence of various input parameters, i.e. the curvature ratio (CRO), thickness ratio (TRO), aspect ratio (ARO), boundary conditions, and power-law indices on the nonlinear vibration behaviours of FG sandwich structure have been studied.

8. Kumar, V., Dewangan, H.C., Sharma, N., & Panda, S.K. (2022). Numerical frequency and SERR response of damaged (crack/delamination) multilayered composite under themomechanical loading: An experimental verification. Composite Structures, 293, 115709. (Impact Factor: 6.603)


This research predicted the influences of combined damage (delamination and crack) and thermomechanical loading on the modal values and strain energy release rate (SERR) of the curved shell panel. The results are obtained computationally using a computer code (MATLAB platform) with the help of isoparametric finite element (FE) steps and the higher-order deformation polynomial. The Hamilton principle is adopted to obtain the final governing equation for the frequency analysis of the damaged structure. Additionally, the deflection, strain, and stresses are recorded by back substituting the numerical solutions to compute the desired energy values. The obtained solution accuracy and the stabilities are verified by performing the convergence and the comparison (published frequencies and SERR) studies. Moreover, a few lab-scale modal experimentations (cracked laminated composite with and without temperature increments) are carried out to accomplish the proposed model. Lastly, a series of numerical examples related to the SERR and modal responses of the current damaged curved composite structure is solved by considering the geometrical, material, and damage parameters (shape and sizes of delamination and orientation of crack). The SERR values calculated using the virtual crack closure technique. The pointwise comprehensions related to the inputs and the model are envisaged in details.

9. Jena, H., Panigrahi, A., & Jena, M. (2022). Mechanical property of jute fibre reinforced polymer composite filled with clam shell filler: a marine waste. Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies, 1-17.


The present work utilises clam shell, a marine waste as filler material in a natural fibre composite. Different contents of clam shell filler of 0, 5 and 10 wt.% are considered for preparing the composite by the hand lay-up technique. The addition clamshell filler in the composite improves the tensile strength and tensile modulus by 51.40 and 63.47 % from 0 to 5 wt.% of clam shell filler, respectively. Similarly, flexural strength, flexural modulus and inter laminar shear strength of the composites show the maximum value at 5 wt.% filler addition. Beyond this value, the mechanical strength is reduced. Hardness values of the composites are increased with the increase in inclusion of the clam shell filler. In contrast, the addition of filler reduces the impact strength of the composites. Again, to determine the viscoelastic behaviour of the jute epoxy composite with the clam shell filler, dynamic mechanical analysis is performed. Storage modulus and loss modulus are found to be increasing with the increase in wt.% of filler. For all composites, the damping factor improves with the increase in temperature and obtained the highest height in the transition region. It is low below the glass transition temperature.

10. Mandal, P., Roy, S., & Singh, U.P. (2022). Investigation on the optical and electrical performance of aluminium doped gallium oxide thin films. Optical and Quantum Electronics, 54(8), 1-15. (Impact Factor: 2.794).


Gallium oxide is an extensively researched wide band gap material that has numerous applications in optoelectronic devices. This article focuses on fabrication of amorphous gallium oxide (a-gallium oxide) deposited by RF plasma sputtering at low temperature on glass substrates to fabricate large area flexible electronics. Particularly, this work aims to improve their optical and electrical performances by metal doping as well as substrate pre-heating. Here, the properties of 9.5% aluminium doped a-Ga2O3 and 6.1% europium doped a-Ga2O3, grown by co-sputtering on soda lime glass substrate at 400 °C were analyzed. The thin films produced were nano-structured with an average grain size of ~ 12 nm. The maximum optical transmittance in the UV–vis range for 9.5% Al and 6.1% Eu doped a-Ga2O3 is 82% and 84%, respectively. Although the variations in optical band gap are not appreciable with doping Al and Eu to undoped a-Ga2O3 ~ 3.98 eV, their electronic properties show tremendous difference. Hall effects measurements show that by doping with 9.5% Al, the a-gallium oxide thin films record an increase in both mobility and conductivity of 2 orders. On the other hand, the 6.1% Eu doped a-Ga2O3 does not show any appreciable change in both mobility and conductivity. This was further investigated through first principle density function theory (DFT) to correlate the structure to its properties for both the dopants. Therefore, aluminium doping in a-gallium oxide shows potential towards its application in flexible and cheaper electronic devices.

11. Panda, S.K., Rana, B.K., & Kumar, P. (2022). Entrainment in multifluid systems, and rotation induced occurrences. European Journal of Mechanics-B/Fluids, 96, 156–172. (Impact Factor: 2.598).


Fluid entrainment is a complex and deeply attractive phenomenon that is frequently encountered in both industry and nature. In general, entrainment deals with the basic understanding of penetration one fluid into another which leads to occurrence of complex interfacial structure. The present article addresses a detailed description of the recent studies on entrainment dynamics caused by the external rotational flux across the interfaces is elaborated. Despite of considerable progress in understanding rotation induced entrainment, there are still several questions unanswered due to its difficulty, unpredictability, three-dimensional effects, and chaotic nature. Therefore, here we explained numerous numerical, experimental, and analytical investigations with their relevance in engineering applications wherein the increase of interfacial area causes enhancement of heat and mass transfer. The description also includes various patterns of entrained fluid entities due to rotations induced across the interface. Furthermore, the entrainment behaviors have been critically analyzed to draw out the distinct categorization of rollers relying on parameters such as submergence ratio with different gas–liquid pairs.

12. Pati, P.R., & Satpathy, M.P. (2022). Effect of process parameters on sliding wear performance of red brick dust-filled glass–epoxy composites. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, 236(9), 1846-1854. (Impact Factor: 1.818)


This research is focused on the study of the tribological properties of epoxy composites reinforced with red brick dust and glass fiber. Wear tests are conducted on a pin-on-disk apparatus. The wear rate and coefficient of friction are measured after tribological tests. The relative effect of process parameters such as sliding velocity, normal load, filler content on specific wear rate, and coefficient of friction is also examined using the Taguchi model and analysis of variance technique. Furthermore, an innovative optimization approach is adopted by combining grey relational analysis with the metaheuristic firefly algorithm to obtain the desired response values. A nonlinear regression model is generated to cater to the relationship between the grey relational grade and the process parameters. This model is further employed in the firefly algorithm to move the firefly to the neighboring brighter and attractive firefly. The most influencing factors for wear rate and friction coefficient are sliding velocity and normal load, respectively. This work not only opens up an opportunity for value-added utilization of waste material such as red brick dust but also the proposed metaheuristic approach can be customized and applied for any multi-response optimization problem.

13. Das, P., Kar, S.P., & Sarangi, R.K. (2022). Review on thermal performance of heat exchanger using phase change material. International Journal of Energy Research, 46(12), 16208 -16240. (Impact Factor: 4.672)


This article reports detailed investigation of using different Phase Change Materials (PCM) in various designs of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Devices: specifically, heat exchanger. The focus is on the performance analysis of different types of heat exchangers acting as TES having various PCMs which are substantially reviewed in this paper. The study highlights the difference in their geometry and performance output. Further, the importance of different performance enhancement methods with parametric study of different heat exchangers using PCM is described. From the detailed investigation, finally, it is realised that the different factors such as no. of outer tubes, no. of inner tubes, tube material selected, type of PCM, provision of an extended surface, use of different metal foams and nanoparticles, various types of composites, charging and discharging characteristics and packed and cascaded units are different heat transfer enhancement methods to improve the heat transfer. A novel kind of heat exchanger known as Webbed tube heat exchanger using PCM is discussed for an efficient TES unit. Further, a review of quantitative analysis of melting time, solidification time, charging and discharging time is discussed.

14. Chavda, A., Mehta, P., & Harichandan, A. (2022). Numerical analysis of multiphase flow in chemical looping reforming process for hydrogen production and CO2 capture. Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow, 4(4), 360-376.


The unsteady characteristics of bubble dynamics inside the air reactor within the first 0–40 s of reforming has always been studied for defining the design criteria of the reactor. In the study, a temporal aspect of the hydrodynamics and chemical kinetics in the reactor of a chemical looping reforming system in form of volume fraction contours of solid species and molar fraction of H2O has been numerically simulated by considering manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) based metal oxides as oxygen carriers. The Finite Volume Method based approach has been employed to simulate the steam reactor model by encompassing it as a fluidized bed reactor. The granular flow under kinetic theory has been employed using a multiphase Eulerian-based approach for both gas and solid phases in the form of a shrinking core model. An influence of various operating parameters such as particle size of the oxygen carriers, steam inlet velocity, and temperature of the steam reactor on an overall conversion rate of iron-based oxide (FeO) and manganese-based oxide (MnO). The maximum steam conversion rate for FeO and MnO was observed at 32% and 34% at 0.6 m/s steam velocity, 48% and 60% at a maximum temperature of 1273 K, and 47% and 64% at a particle size of 100 μm, respectively.

15. Sinha, G.S., Kumar Mishra, N., Muthukumar, P., & Sharma, M. (2022). Thermal performance and emission analysis of self-aspirated kerosene pressure stove with porous radiant burner using kerosene nanofuels. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 1-10. (Impact Factor: 3.519)


This paper reports the development of a self-aspirated ceria-based nano-particle blended kerosene-fueled pressure stove to work on Porous Radiant Burner and its performance analysis. The novel self-aspiration system makes the stove exhibit higher thermal efficiencies and lower emissions than any other design reported before. It was found that the new stove exhibits ~ 6% higher thermal efficiency than the conventional stove when kerosene is used and ~ 10% higher values with the nanofuel. Furthermore, performances of the Porous Radiant Burner were tested with a CO, and NOx emissions of the PRB-kerosene stove were found significantly low (80% lower than the conventional stove). The newly developed Porous Radiant Burner stove performs close to an LPG stove in terms of thermal efficiency and emission level.

16. Alok, P. & Sahu, D. (2022). Numerical analysis of a two-phase injection refrigeration cycle using R32. Journal of Thermal Engineering, 8(2), 157-168.


The present paper reports the performance of a popular refrigerant R32 (Difluoromethane, CF2H2) experiencing the two phase injection process. Two phase injection process may lower the discharge temperature of a multistage compressor. In order to investigate the role and impact of two-phase injection on a compressor, a Scroll compressor is selected because scroll compressor has high tolerance for liquid refrigerant. A reputed compressor is chosen where all the operating conditions and specifications are available in public domain. The modelling and analysis of refrigeration system is carried out using a simple MATLAB code. Around 200 iterations were performed for four different condensing and evaporating temperatures. The maximum reduction in discharge temperature is found to be 44°C when compared to R410A used in the same system.

17. Chaudhuri, S., Mohanty, R.L., & Mishra, V.K. (2022). Convective heat transfer in electromagnet hydrodynamic flow of third grade fluids through large parallel plates: a study on effect of parametric variation on thermal characteristics. Sādhanā, 47(2), 1-14. (Impact Factor: 1.214).


Electromagnet hydrodynamic flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian third grade fluid through two parallel plates of large width are studied for both heating and cooling. The plates are subjected to uniform heat fluxes. A magnetic field and an electric field are externally imposed. The effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating are included in the analysis. The non-linear equations governing the physical situation are solved by employing the Least Square Method (LSM), a semi-analytical technique widely applied for solving non-linear problems. For implementing the least square method, the presence of any small parameter is not required. Non-dimensional velocity and temperature distributions are obtained and the effects of the third grade fluid parameters, Hartmann number, electric field parameter, Brinkman number on the velocity, temperature, and Nusselt number are discussed. The results imply that the Nusselt number reverses its sign when the Brinkmann number reaches a critical value. The bulk mean temperature decreases so much that the difference between the wall temperature and the bulk mean temperature becomes negative, which results in a negative Nusselt number (indicating heat transfer from the fluid). In the case of heating, the Nusselt number increases with the Hartmann number for all values of the third grade fluid parameter.

18. Pandey, V., Yadav, M.K., Gupta, A., Mohanta, K., Panda, S.K., & Singh, V.K. (2022). Synthesis, morphological and thermomechanical characterization of light weight silica foam via reaction generated thermo-foaming process. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 42(14), 6671-6683. (Impact Factor: 6.364)


Low-cost thermo-foaming technique involving sucrose dehydration reaction with H2SO4 has been used for ceramic foam processing. The heat and gas generated during the reaction induces a thermo-foaming effect in the sucrose-ceramic mixture. This converts the sucrose-ceramic slurry into a carbonaceous porous ceramic-scaffold. The converted carbon is seen to agglutinate with the ceramic particles. During sintering, they are removed subsequently, thereby enlarging the pores. Influence of solids-loading, sintering temperature and H2SO4 concentration on the foaming behaviour, pore morphology and thermo-mechanical properties are studied. The fabricated silica foams are found to have porosity within the range of 70 %− 90 % and compressive strength of 0.8–2.8 MPa. The extreme porosity of the silica foams and their intercrystallite pores within the struts results in the low thermal conductivity (0.0943 Wm−1K−1) of the specimens. The fabricated foam is seen as a promising material for insulation applications like catalyst supports, filters and bio-scaffolds.

19. Yadav, M.K., Pandey, V., Mohanta, K., & Singh, V.K. (2022). A low-cost approach to develop silica doped Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) scaffold by valorizing animal bone waste and rice husk for tissue engineering applications. Ceramics International, 48 (17), 25335 – 25345. (Impact Factor: 5.532)


In the present study Hydroxyapatite (HAp) derived Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) and Silica (SiO2) based scaffold was successfully fabricated for the first time by effective utilizing various waste such as animal waste bone (AWB) and rice husk (RH) as a source of HAp and SiO2 respectively. Scaffold development involved simple steps comprising of segregation of waste materials followed by sample preparation through die compaction and sintering (1000 °C and 1300 °C). Advanced characterization techniques like XRD, SEM, TEM, and FTIR were employed to study the properties of the waste materials as well as the developed composite scaffold. The presence of silica from RH combines with the HAp during high temperature sintering and initiates the phenomenon of phase transformation of HAp to TCP along with the formation of a glassy phase. The extent of phase transformation increases as the wt% of RH increases. XRD analysis revealed the development of different phases. SEM microstructure shows that the addition of silica restricts the grain growth and supports the formation of crystalline glassy phase termed as Si-TCP. FTIR results confirmed the presence of phosphate, carbonate, and hydroxyl groups in the sintered samples. The porosity of the scaffold was in the range of 34–61% and the compressive strength was up to 4.1 MPa. The SEM images of scaffold dipped in simulated body fluid (SBF) shows formation of apatite layer throughout the surface. The bioactivity of the scaffold was highly influenced by the addition of silica in the HAp matrix. The apatite forming ability of the developed porous was much greater than that of pure HAp for the same incubation period. The obtained properties of the developed scaffold are comparable to that of natural bone. Thus the present work creates an opportunity to use AWB for the development of composite for tissue engineering applications.

20. Kumari, J., Tiwari, M., Mohanta, K., & Singh, V.K. (2022). Fabrication and characterization of silica ceramic compact prepared using Aloevera mucilage as a binder. International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, 19(6), 3030 – 3039. (Impact Factor: 2.328)


In this study, silica compacts were fabricated through a powder processing route at different compaction pressure, using Aloe-Vera (AV) mucilage as a binder. The silica compacts were prepared at 90, 100, and 110 MPa compaction pressure using 0%–16 wt% of AV binder. The optimum amount of AV binder was 14 wt% for both 90 and 100 MPa and 12 wt% for 110 MPa. The maximum achieved green density and green strength of silica compacts at the optimum binder amount were 62.3% and 4 MPa, respectively at 110 MPa compaction pressure. The green silica compacts prepared at 110 MPa compaction pressure exhibited a minimum porosity of 21% and maximum flexural strength of 15 MPa after sintering at 1400°C. The green silica compacts with the optimum amount of binder were strong enough for machining. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the functional groups present in AV mucilage. The binder burnout characteristic of AV mucilage in the silica compact was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. Additionally, AV gel acted as a binder and solvent simultaneously for ceramic compaction.

21. Jyoti, V.P., Yadav, M. K., Mohanta, K., & Singh, V.K. (2022). Green Properties of Dry Pressed Alumina Compact Prepared Using Aloe Vera Gel and Sucrose as a Binder. Transactions of the Indian Ceramic Society, 81(1), 7-14. (Impact Factor: 2.355).


The present study is focused on the scope of aloe vera (AV) gel and sucrose as a binder to prepare green ceramic compact samples through dry pressing. The alumina compacts having 0-14 wt% (0-2.8 wt% on dry basis) AV gel and 0-2 wt% sucrose binder have been prepared as a function of moisture content at optimum compaction pressure. The green properties of the resulting samples have been characterized through SEM, FTIR, etc and compared with other binders. Primary results revealed that alumina compact with an optimum binder content attained maximum green density and flexural strength. The maximum green density and maximum green flexural strength are 64% and 13.5 Mpa, respectively. The experimental results have also been correlated with the microstructure of green compacts. Dry pressed compacts are sufficiently strong for green machining. The strength of binder-based green ceramic samples has been attributed to better particle packing due to adsorbing and plasticizing properties of AV gel and sucrose binder, as revealed by IR analysis. The sintered properties of fired samples at 1600°C have exhibited minimum (2.3%) porosity. Therefore, the current study creates a scope of AV gel and sucrose as a binder for the green processing of alumina-based compacts.

22. Sahoo, B.P., Das, D., & Chaubey, A.K. (2021). Strengthening mechanisms and modelling of mechanical properties of submicron-TiB2 particulate reinforced Al 7075 metal matrix composites. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 825, 141873. (Impact Factor: 6.044)


The physics of matrix-reinforcement consonance in metal matrix composites (MMCs) is quite complex and it is difficult to quantify the effects of individual parameters on the composite properties. Strengthening mechanisms proposed so far are under assumptions of uniform particle dispersion and perfectly bonded interface. However, practically it is quite difficult to achieve a perfect uniformity in particle dispersion, and a perfect interface bonding may not be achieved through liquid state processing of MMCs. This paper accentuates on implementation of various established strengthening mechanisms on mechanical properties of Al 7075/submicron-TiB2 MMCs, synthesized through semisolid stirring and ultrasonic agitation assisted squeeze casting route. Analytical models were proposed to predict elastic modulus and yield strength of the MMCs considering the effects of porosity, and the proposed models were validated with the experimental results and predicted results of some established models. Reasonable agreement of the proposed model was attained with the experimental results and the established models, more prominently at higher volume fractions of particle incorporation.

Conference Papers

1. Nayak, S. K., Behera, S. P., Mishra, P. C., & Sarkar, A. (2023). Measurement of Local Spray Impingement Density by Using a Novel Patternator. Recent Advances in Mechanical Engineering (pp. 495-502). Springer, Singapore.


The current investigation confronts the measurement of the local impingement density of fluid spray which plays crucial role in ultra-fast cooling of heated metal surfaces in steel industry, electronic chip cooling, automobile industry for fuel injection, aviation, etc. An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to explore the influence of several controlling variables to enhance the spray density of a mechanical patternator. The flow behavior of the air atomizing nozzle was investigated at various parametric combinations and conditions. The working fluid used in this study was normal water-assisted with a range of air pressure from 2 to 4 bar. The amount of water was accumulated by the tubes attached to the patternator, and impingement density was calculated at the designated locations of the tubes.

Books / Book Chapters

1. Mishra, P.C., Noor, M. M., & Hoang, A. T.  (2022) Advances in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 1st Edition, 1-378, Taylor & Francis, CRC Press.


This book presents selected proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering-2020 (ICAMIE-2020) and highlights the research hotspots in next generation mechanical system design, thermal and fluid system design, materials and smart manufacturing processes and industrial engineering. This field covers the topics which include modern-age smart materials, materials processing and applications, smart machinery and machine design, system dynamics and simulation, bio mimics, energy system, micro- and nano- scale transport, automotive engineering, advance material characterization and testing, green manufacturing, intelligent systems, human factors, production planning & control etc. This book also provides the meaningful research content along with the various applications to stimulate the intellectual excitement of the researchers. This proceedings book can be an imperative reference for researchers, professionals and industry personnel to take their research up to next echelon for proficient professional practice.

2. Swain, S., Kumar, A., Singh, Y., Singh, A., Ganguly, A., Sinha, A. R., … & Nayak, B. (2022). Exploring Jatropha as a Multifaceted Shrub: A Comprehensive Review. Advances in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 228-235.


Importance of the fossil fuel is beyond description but unfortunately its reserve is limited. Vegetable oils and their biodiesels partially succeed in facing the energy requirement of society, but their characteristics are unable to touch the quality level of petroleum products. Properties of some non-edible oils resemble with petro-Diesel properties and jatropha is one of them. Though in India, jatropha use is not so widely observed, still in South American countries like Brazil, Chilli and in some other tropical nations, it is largely cultivated, because of its multidimensional use. Now a days, many nations have joined hands to verify whether in future jatropha oil can act as a substitute to fossil fuel, which will be very useful in reducing the hegemony of Arab countries. This paper relates to properties, preparation and scope of different non consumable oils in general and jatropha oil in particular.

3. Saha, P., Raja, P., Sinha, A. K., Behera, R. K., Ashutosh, K., Gautam, S., Chakraborty, P., Khan, B., Saikia, R., Mishra, A., Mishra, P.C. & Nayak, B. (2022). Biogas Production, Utilisation and Recent Updates in the State of Odisha: A Comprehensive Review. Advances in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 206-213.


Now a days, the huge increase in the population growth is giving a great challenge to the researchers to replace the fossil fuel by the renewable energy sources. Because of the shortage of natural resources, the researchers are moving towards the manmade fuels, by utilising the renewable sources of energy. The most significant sources of renewable energy in India are biomass, biogas, cosmological, wind and hydro power etc. It is important to note that the Biogas is one of the popular source of energy for isolated areas. Biogas is most commonly produced from various waste materials, which do not have any cost, like cow dung and other animal waste, kitchen waste, municipal waste and from the plant matter such as leaves and water hyacinth. Biomass is one possible source of renewable energy, besides that it absorbs the waste materials and protects the environment from global warming. Moreover, the recycling of the nutrient rich residues can be further utilised for fields, for improving the energy levels of soil. A brief review of the main translation processes and its utilisation is provided, with specific regard to the production of a fuel suitable for spark ignition and compression ignition gas engines.

4. Kumar, V. B., Srivastav, A., Chatterjee, P. R., Kundu, U., Damle, N., Dheeraj, P., Jha, U., Singh, A., Shahdeo, A., Deka, H., Agarwal, S., Mishra, P.C. & Nayak, B. (2022). Emission Analysis of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester Blends. Advances in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (pp. 236-242). CRC Press.


In the present era, due to the high brake thermal efficiency of modern diesel engines, the conventional fuel consumption in agricultural sector has increased to an extreme end, which is causing drastic depletion of the natural resources. Due to good oxidation characteristics and lubricating nature, the biodiesel is attracting the world to its side as an alternative fuel. The present paper elaborates the emission characteristics of an agricultural diesel engine utilising jatropha oil methyl ester with diesel blends (B10, B20 and B30). All the emission values were noted and plotted in the graph against loads varying at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%. The results depict that BD20 is the blend, which shows less tendency towards the emissions like CO, CO2, HC, while there is a slight increment in both NOx and smoke emission in comparison to the other test fuel blends, which gives a conclusion that B20 is a best alternative fuel capable of replacing current petroleum diesel fuels to reduce the engine emissions.

Patent Granted

Name of the inventors: Chauhan, H., Satapathy, S., Sahoo, A.K.

Title of the Patent: Multifunctional Headgear (Indian patent).


The present disclosure provides a multifunctional headgear 100. The headgear 100 includes a cooling unit 104 to provide cooling-effect, illumination sources 108 to illuminate a predetermined area, a rain cover 110 to protect from rain, a charging module 114 to enable charging of rechargeable devices, and a communication unit 106 to transmit meteorological attributes. The headgear 100 includes a protecting segment to protect eyes of the user from dust and dirt. The headgear 100 includes a power supply and management unit 116 to supply conditioned electric power to the headgear 100. The headgear includes solar panels 120 to enable generation of electric power through insolating solar radiations.

Ph.D. Degree Awarded

Student’s Name: Dr. Hullash Chauhan

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. S. Satapathy & Dr. A. K. Sahoo, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  Study on Mental Stress of Agri Farmers by Sustainable Engineering

Abstract of the Thesis:

At the individual farmer level, the occurrences of mental work load, health problems such as stress, anxiety, unhappy, feeling depression, physical problems and psychological distress have been identified as key risk factors while working in adverse weather conditions. Moreover, the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomforts and disorders cause serious health related problems due to psychological stress that affect the mental well-being of farmers reducing their work efficiency. The mental-stress has an important aspect affecting the individuals’ performances when they try for a varying level of complex-tasks. The exposing of human-beings to higher-levels of mental-stresses seems to be intolerable, and may affect in successfully completion of the tasks. The stresses in workplaces have been most harmful physical as well as emotional effects. With regard to farming occupation, it has been more dangerous with greater fatality-rates than any other occupation. Thus, an attempt was made in this research to identify the key risk-factors in farming work-places in addition to the levels of depressions, anxieties and work-stresses of farmers of Indian agriculture leading to mental ill-health among them. Further, this work aimed at developing a compact integrated device for measuring the mental-stress associated variables among the farmers. In order to design the device, different commercially available standard devices for measuring individual parameters/variables associated with the mental-stress of farmers in the form of their emotions were identified such as “Pulse Rate, High BP, Low BP, Temperature, and SO2”, respectively.

Student’s Name: Dr. Biswajit Mohapatra

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Sushant Tripathy & Dr. Deepak Singhal, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  An investigation on Some Aspects of lean in Manufacturing Sector

Abstract of the Thesis:

Lean, the warrior philosophy, has its reputation rooted in rescuing industries in crisis and transforming them into global players. Industries were driven into the gloom, with the decline in demand, supply, and workforce during the COVID pandemic. Further, post-pandemic, numerous industries have to resurrect themselves to bring back stability and competitiveness in the global market. In India, industries are starting to embrace lean, especially in MSMEs, as these contribute maximum to GDP but waste generated is also huge. To adopt lean, the barriers in manufacturing industries are to be examined along with its solutions and also tools needed to execute them. This research propelled by these ideas delves deep into lean barrier identification and prioritization, solutions proposal and order of importance pertaining to each barrier, and tools to execute the solutions. Industry-specific examples towards sustainability by a novel “ranking of techniques” are also unfolded. A real challenge is addressed to generate revenue in industries post-pandemic era. The implications of this research would bring clarity and awareness to academicians and industry professionals/managers the know-how of when to start implementing lean and where to start from. It would concertize the concepts, applications, and feasibility of lean in manufacturing industries. It will offer a sturdy base for manufacturers around the world to tune to lean and digital transformation of the production scenario.

Student’s Name: Dr. Rajan K.M.

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. A.K. Sahoo & Dr. B.C. Routara, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  Machinability Studies During Turning and Electro- Discharge Machining of Wrought and Additive Manufactured Titanium Alloys

Abstract of the Thesis:

Machining of titanium alloys is considered as difficult and also a major concern for manufacturing industries due to their low thermal conductivity, high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials and low elastic modulus. This leads failure of cutting tools and consequently affects the surface quality. Thus, selection of appropriate cutting tool materials and process parameters are essential for its effectiveness in industrial applications. Therefore, this research emphasizes on CNC turning of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V using coated carbide inserts under flood cooling environment to study the machinability characteristics such as tool wear, surface roughness, cutting temperature and chip morphology. Surface roughness lie between 0.215-0.830 µm and even below 1µm during machining. Additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V has higher mechanical properties as compared to wrought alloys that negatively influences the machinability characteristics and also lacks ductility. The main limitation is the poor surface quality; staircase effect and adhering of non-melted powder particles to the fabricated components. Again, fatigue life of components increases with decrease of surface roughness. Therefore, the need of machining of AMed titanium alloys in recent years is gaining importance. Therefore, the objective of the study is to develop AMed Ti-6Al-4V through direct metal laser sintering process and investigate its machinability characteristics. As most of the heat generated at the interfaces has been carried away through flood cooling, the rate of growth of tool wear, cutting temperature, surface roughness and degree of serration decreases and thus makes the performance of AMed Ti alloys are comparable with wrought Ti alloys. Optimal parameters for multi-responses are 0.1 mm depth of cut, 0.1 mm/rev feed rate and 70 m/min cutting speed and improved. Mathematical models are said to be significant and fitted well. Because of the improved machinability, AMed Ti alloys find itself suitable in industrial applications. The current study also focused on selecting the best cooling strategy and cutting parameters for turning Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy for sustainability. The cutting performances in dry, flood, and MQL settings are first compared, and MQL is found to perform better. The performance of stationary and rotary copper electrodes on Electro-discharge machining of wrought Ti-6Al-4V have been studied. Material removal rate (MRR), tool ware rate (TWR) and surface roughness (SR) were analyzed with three controllable input parameters such as pulse on time (Ton), Peak Current (Ip) and Gap Voltage (V). The design of experiment is chosen for the experimentation as the Box-Behnken response surface design method. The results are analyzed using grey relational analysis (GRA) coupled with firefly algorithm (FA).

Student’s Name: Dr. Rabinarayan Bag

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. A. Panda & Dr. A.K. Sahoo, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  Machinability investigation in hard turning of AISI 4340 steel under dry, MQL and nanofluid assisted MQL environments

Abstract of the Thesis:

In general, dry turning is the preferred choice for machining hardened steel because of high heat generation which softens the workpiece and minimizes the shear strength of the material. MQL-assisted machining provides cooling, lubricating, chip flushing, and environmentally friendly functions and is considered near dry sustainable machining. Three machining parameters namely cutting speed (v), feed rate (f), and depth of cut (d) with three levels have been adopted for the experimentation using the L27 Taguchi orthogonal array. The measured outputs such as average surface roughness (Ra), flank wear (VBc), cutting temperature (T), and chip morphology were considered for this experimental investigation. In this context, an attempt has been made in the recent investigation to study the machinability aspects at a higher cutting speed range i.e. 80-260 m/min for coated carbide cutting inserts in hardened steel machining which is rarely observed. A machinability analysis has been performed on the assessment of hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using PVD and CVD coated carbide tool under dry and dual jet MQL environment. Based on the experimental result, machining performance assessment of hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using CVD coated carbide tool under dual jet nanofluid MQL environment has been performed. At last, sustainability assessment during hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using CVD coated under dual jet nanofluid MQL environment has been performed. Abrasion, diffusion, and adhesion are the main wear mechanisms as observed. The occurrence of chip serration reasons for the formation of saw tooth type of chip because of cyclic crack at the free surface of the chip because of severe plastic deformation. For all machining environments, the hard turning of AISI 4340 steel and the cutting speed are found to be the most affecting term for tool flank wear and cutting temperature. For all cutting conditions the optimal parameters found to be d1 (0.2 mm)-f1 (0.05 mm/rev)-v1 (80 m/min). Further, Sustainability Pugh matrix evaluation revealed that NFMQL cutting environment improved the economical, technological, environmental and operator health sustainable parameters. Minimisation of energy consumption by 35.81 % and carbon footprints savings by 18.72 kg of CO2 observed under NFMQL at optimal cutting conditions and consequently saves manufacturing cost and CO2 emission respectively. This satisfies green and cleaner manufacturing of AISI 4340 steel. MQL hard machining and nanofluid assisted MQL hard machining for sustainability will be immensely beneficial for the research community for the replacement of traditional grinding in machining industries due to better environmental, economical benefits. This may be implemented on shop floors for environmentally cleaner sustainable machining.

Student’s Name: Dr. Saroj Kumar Muduli

Supervisor’s Name:

Dr. P.C. Mishra, Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering

Dr. R.K. Mishra, Scientist G, Group Director, CEMELAC, DRDO

Thesis Title: Performance Assessment of an Annular Combustor over its Flight Envelope

Abstract of the Thesis:

An annular combustor is tested in test rig simulating to H = 0 and various altitude operating conditions. Experimental data have been generated and utilized to validate numerical results in computational model. A 130 sector is modeled for the computational study. The primary air injection ports, dilution ports, cooling holes on liners and all major components of the combustor flow path are modeled and ICEMCFD is used as grid generation tool. ANSYS CFX has been used to solve the governing equations on finite volume method. All velocity and pressure equations were solved as a single system implicitly. Eddy-dissipation combustion model is selected for the whole study. Computational analysis has been carried out for operating conditions starting from ISA sea level static to ISA 12 km 0.6 Mach number. Data generated for this combustor by actual testing on the ground test bed for few cases are compared with the CFD results at different sections. Parameters such as overall pressure loss, combustor efficiency, temperature non-uniformities and exhaust emissions are analysed. The computational model estimated the pressure losses which are within 1 % of the experimental data. As combustor exit temperature non-uniformities (RPF & CPF) are very important with respect to aero engine life, these parameters are further assessed with varying altitude, atomisation characteristics such as fuel flow variation, fuel particle size , spray cone angle and fuel air ratio. Pressure swirl atomizers generally have small outlet diameters that are prone to rapid fuel distribution changes due to blockage. To consider these variations in fuel flow and their effect, the fuel flow is varied by ± 5 % from the nominal fuel flow. Similarly, cone angle shifts the high temperature zone upstream closer to combustor dome, hence the residence time for complete combustion and dilution is more thus causing a lower gas temperature at combustor exit. Exhaust emission constituents such as NO, CO and UHC which are important from environmental point of view have been assessed under different operating conditions. As no regulated emission limits are exercised so far in military applications, the data are generated and analysed over the operating envelope from combustor performance point of view. The predictive tool validated with experimental data from a full-scale full-annular combustor testing on aero-thermal test stand has been used for the assessment of all performance parameters and is the novelty of this work. These results will be an invaluable asset for designers as well as for operators for assessing the aero engine performance at various altitude and Mach number for full flight operation in the intended platform.

Student’s Name: Dr. Vikas Singh Panwar

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. A. Pandey & Dr. Md. E. Hasan, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  Design and Analysis of a Solar Powered Four Wheeled Wet and Dry Floor Cleaning Robot Controlled Autonomously using Soft Computing Algorithms

Abstract of the Thesis:

In current scenario, when everyday a new project with large and complex infrastructure is building up around the world, definitely there is a need and demand of maintaining them. And when we discuss about the maintenance of any building or structure, then the most tedious and boring task is cleaning. But nowadays, workloads on individuals and industries are increasing day-by-day, so the demands for service robots are also increasing at same intensity. Even in the present time when various contagious infections are shaking the world around us, the demand of autonomous floor cleaning robot has been increased drastically. Therefore, there is a need of multi-tasking Floor Cleaning Robot (FCR) which can efficiently perform wet and dry cleaning simultaneously without any human intervention. In the presented work, developed FCR employs a novel cleaning and operating system which helps in performing dry and wet cleaning operation continuously one after another. With reference to many available FCR in market and research field, a practical design is perceived using designing tools and a fully functional prototype is fabricated. To make it cost-effective and eco-friendly, solar panel is also attached on top of the model which will power the FCR. The kinematic and dynamic model of the developed FCR is analyzed and presented systematically. Navigational controls are developed by using different soft computing algorithms based on multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA), multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MPSO), particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm tuned feed forward neural network (FNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) architecture with the help of sensor’s information so that FCR can navigate autonomously by negotiating the obstacles coming in the way while carrying out the cleaning task in an unknown environment. The proposed techniques; performances are demonstrated using computer simulations using Virtual Robot Experimentation Platform (V-REP) software and implemented in real time using the developed experimental FCR. Furthermore, a comparative study of the navigational performance of proposed path planning approaches in terms of path length and travel time has been performed to determine the most efficient technique for navigation in an unknown environment.

Student’s Name: Dr. Dipabrata Banerjee

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Swayam Bikash Mishra, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  Mathematical and Experimental Approach for Geometrical Deformation of Fused Deposition Modeling Built Parts

Abstract of the Thesis:

To meet the challenging demands of the customer in the global market, manufacturing industries are adopting digital manufacturing technologies that can increase the part quality and minimise the part cycle time. This digitisation in manufacturing industries gives birth to Rapid Prototyping (RP) processes. Among all RP processes, the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is widely appreciated for its easy and advanced mechanism. FDM process has the ability to build precise 3D complex parts from CAD files by depositing material in a layer over layer manner with less human intervention and material waste. FDM fabricated parts are accurate, durable and exhibit adequate mechanical strength. Since FDM is a parametric dependant process, the selection of proper process parameters plays a significant role in part quality and strength. In our research work, the effect of process parameters such as part orientation, layer thickness, raster width, overlap distance, part length, part width and raster angel on warpage, surface roughness and circularity of FDM build parts are investigated mathematically and experimentally to check the dependency level. Experiments are carried out adopting the design of experiment (DOE) approach to extract maximum data from a minimum number of experimental run orders. Statistical significance of each process parameter is checked using analysis of variance (ANOVA) table. Quadratic regression equations are proposed establishing the correlation between process parameters and performance characteristics. Internal failure of the raster, formation of warpage and internal surface irregularities are checked using scanning electron machine (SEM) micrographs. A new swarm-based metaheuristic algorithm known as Ant-Lion optimiser (ALO) is adopted to get some optimum process parameter settings to improve the performance measures.

Student’s Name: Dr. Manish Kumar Agarwal

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Saranjit Singh, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  Analysis of Deformation Characteristics during Forging of SiCp Reinforced Aluminium Matrix Composites

Abstract of the Thesis:

The present thesis presents investigation of deformation characteristics during forging (closed-die) of SiCp AMC. The perform (cylindrical) fabricated via liquid metal stir casting manufacturing route were located centrally in closed-die set with respect to its axis and forged into axi-symmetric double-hub flange component. Initial experiments were conducted to examine the mechanical characterization of the AMC preforms under consideration, which also included investigations into interfacial frictional conditions and stress-strain behaviour of the AMC material. Under a controlled die-travel till the die corners were filled completely, during forging of the preforms, corresponding height reductions and die loads were recorded. The complete deformations were considered in two stages, i.e. free barreling and constrained distortion stages. The theoretical expressions (generalized using ‘Upper Bound’ technique) for strain rates, velocity field, various energy dissipations along with average die loads for all the deformation modes considered in the present study were formulated. The variation in die loads, die cavity fills and energy dissipations due to the effect of perform aspect ratio and die velocity were critically examined and experimentally compared the results. The present work also presents both theoretical (based on ‘Upper Bound’ approach) and experimental investigations, where theoretical analysis considers a modified interfacial frictional law and preforms free barreling. It is expected that the present work will be useful to assess various deformation characteristics during forging of metal matrix composites.  

Student’s Name: Dr. Rishitosh Ranjan

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. B. Surekha & Dr. P. Ghose, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title: Numerical and Experimental Investigations of A356 Casting using Cooling Slope Method

Abstract of the Thesis:

The present thesis involves numerical and experimental research on the fabrication of the aluminum cast alloy with improved microstructural and mechanical properties after using Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) processing method, which is the cooling slope method. The numerical simulation is conducted to study the effect of slope angle and length on the velocity and solid fraction while the molten metal is flowing over the cooling slope. It has been observed that the solid fraction decreases with the increase in the slope angle and decrease in the slope length. In order to obtain the casting with low hardness, it is desired to have a large grain size and high sphericity to the fabricated casting. This is possible only when the molten metal has a low solid fraction and high nucleation sites at the end of the cooling slope. The numerical simulation results show that the said condition of the molten metal could be achieved by utilizing the higher value of slope angle and the lower value of the slope length. The optimal range of the slope angle and slope length values obtained from the simulation study is used for the fabrication of A356 casting using the cooling slope method. The experiments are conducted as per the Central Composite Design (CCD) to establish the non-linear regression model that represents the fabrication of A356 casting using the CS method. During the fabrication process, in addition to the slope angle and slope length, the nozzle height is considered the input process parameters, whereas the microhardness, grain size, and sphericity of the sample are treated as the responses. The variation of said responses across the cross-section of the casting, the measurements are taken at three locations: the center, mean, and outer radius. The non-linear regression models are established for the A356 sample produced under two conditions, namely with and without isothermal treatment. The statistical validity of the regression models is tested with the Analysis of the Variance (ANOVA). Further, the estimated correctness of the established regression representations is verified using ten experimental test samples. The percentage deviation between the experimental and model-predicted values suggests that the developed mathematical models represent the physical process with reasonably good accuracy.

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School of Humanities (Aug – Sep 2022) Fri, 07 Oct 2022 12:21:00 +0000 School of Humanities

Ph.D. Degree Awarded (Provisional): Student’s Name: Dr. Sanjaya Kumar Sahoo Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Sukanta Chandra Swain, School of Humanities Thesis Title: Socioeconomic Participation of Out-Migrants from Odisha in Domestic Household Management and their Well-Being: A Study in Gajapati District Abstract of the Thesis: The household is the most important economic agent in any society. The […]

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School of Humanities

Ph.D. Degree Awarded (Provisional):

Student’s Name: Dr. Sanjaya Kumar Sahoo

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Sukanta Chandra Swain, School of Humanities

Thesis Title: Socioeconomic Participation of Out-Migrants from Odisha in Domestic Household Management and their Well-Being: A Study in Gajapati District

Abstract of the Thesis:

The household is the most important economic agent in any society. The efficient management of the household necessitates the automatic efficiency of other agents such as the firm, the government, and the foreign sector. In Odisha, managing households on an economic level has been difficult due to low per capita income and the concentration of economic power in the hands of a few. This, in turn, necessitates the economic participation of more household members, but Odisha fails to provide engagement opportunities for all those who wish to participate in the economic management of their specific families. Members of households do not participate socially in the absence of economic participation, as social engagement necessitates monetary commitment. As a result, people are compelled to travel to different locations in order to earn and remit so that they can support their families and establish their social identities. The research behind this Thesis is limited to out-migrants from Odisha who are temporarily stationed in other Indian states. The major objectives of the study are to outline the wide demographics of out-migrants from Odisha and to reveal the reality of such migrants’ socioeconomic participation in domestic household management. The mixed method is followed for the study. While statistical techniques like ANOVA, t-test and Multiple Regression are used for quantitative data analysis, In-depth interviews and focused group discussions are used for qualitative data. Major findings of the study are as follows: 1) Migration from Gajapati district of Odisha to other places happens to be out of compulsion, 2) Migrating through agents/contractors is an encouraging mode to refer to near and dear ones, 3) Out-migrants in the Gajapati district of Odisha are actively participating in social activities at native places, 4) Out-migrants of the Gajapati district of Odisha are participating in economic activities at native places, 5) Health and educational facilities are available, accessible and affordable by the out-migrants, 6) Out-migrants are not participating socially at the migrated place, 7) Out-migrants from Odisha’s Gajapati district are participating economically at the place of work, 8) Out-migrants are in good health and living conditions at their workplace, 9) Out-migrants didn’t have locational advantage at the native place before their Migration, but they have locational advantage at the migrated place, 10) Out-migrants in Odisha’s Gajapati district now enjoy autonomy, 11) Out-migrants of the Gajapati district of Odisha have Environmental Mastery, 12) Out-migrants in Odisha’s Gajapati district have experienced personal growth, 13) Out-migrants of the Gajapati district of Odisha have positive relation with others, 14) Out-migrants of the Gajapati district of Odisha have purpose in life, 15) Out-migrants of the Gajapati district of Odisha have self acceptance, and 16) There is high degree of correlation between any two constructs of the six constructs considered in Ryff’s Scale of psychological well-being.

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School of Biotechnology (Jun – Jul 2022) Mon, 15 Aug 2022 10:42:16 +0000 KIIT School Of Biotechnology

PhD Awards Student’s Name: Dr. Tanmay Nayak Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Vishakha Raina, School of Biotechnology Thesis Title:  Bioremediation of Chlorpyrifos Using Paddy Field Bacterial Isolates: Genomic Insights and Combinatorial Approach towards Field Application Abstract: The study highlights the potential of a bacterial isolate Ochrobactrum sp. CPD-03, in the degradation of Chloropyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide which […]

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KIIT School Of Biotechnology

PhD Awards

Dr. Tanmay Nayak

Student’s Name: Dr. Tanmay Nayak

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Vishakha Raina, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title:  Bioremediation of Chlorpyrifos Using Paddy Field Bacterial Isolates: Genomic Insights and Combinatorial Approach towards Field Application

Abstract: The study highlights the potential of a bacterial isolate Ochrobactrum sp. CPD-03, in the degradation of Chloropyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide which could be beneficial for the agricultural soil improvement. The genome studies validated the key insights of the responsible genes and also draw information for a possible metabolic pathway behind CP degradation metabolism. This study also highlights the use of combinatorial process such as (a) biostimulation along with bioaugmentation with supplementation of carrier material and (b) photo-Fenton process followed by bacterial degradation for achieving enhanced CP degradation in waste water treatment.  

Dr. Ananya Banerjee

Student’s Name: Dr. Ananya Banerjee

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Srinivas Patnaik, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title: Targeting Cancer Stem Cells to Eradicate Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal forms of malignancies and is the fifth leading cause of cancer related deaths in women. Most women are diagnosed with the ovarian cancer at an advanced stage and despite complete response with surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, the majority of the cases relapse, and the recurrent tumors become resistant to the initial drug regimen. The primary reason behind tumor recurrence and chemo resistance has been elucidated to be the existence of a sub-population within the tumor cells, referred to as the cancer stem like cells or ‘Cancer stem cells’ (CSCs). This subgroup of cells has been characterized with inherent properties of self-renewal, invasion, cell migration and differentiation, and is found in leukemias and most solid tumors. The challenge lies in identifying these CSCs and establishing a universal method to isolate them as cancers of different epithelial origin are seen to display a differential expression of CSC biomarkers. The variation in the expression of CSC biomarkers were observed between tumors of same epithelial origin from different patients and also within the same tumor in a single patient. Owing to this diverse range of intra-tumoral and inter-tumoral heterogeneity and constantly evolving mechanisms of the CSCs to evade the host’s immune response and potentially toxic effects of chemotherapy, it has become increasingly important to understand the survival strategy of the CSCs. In the current study, we focused on the ovarian cancer stem cells, and their surviving mechanisms. A major part of this study shows the high expression of miR-328 in ovarian CSCs and elucidates the underlying mechanism of how this phenomenon contributes to stem cell survival and favors disease progression. The other part of the study highlights the importance of Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERß) and its therapeutic implications in depleting ovarian cancer stem cells.

Dr. Parej Nath

Student’s Name: Dr. Parej Nath

Co-Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Srinivas Patnaik, School of Biotechnology

Thesis Title:  Understanding the Role of IRGM in Regulating Innate Immunity


Activation of the type I interferon response is extensively connected to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Loss of function of Immunity Related GTPase M (IRGM) has also been associated with several autoimmune diseases, but its mechanism of action is unknown. In this study, we found that IRGM is a master negative regulator of the interferon response. Several nucleic acid-sensing pathways leading to interferon-stimulated gene expression are highly activated in IRGM knockout mice and human cells. In this study, we show that IRGM interacts with nucleic acid sensor proteins, including cGAS and RIG-I, and mediates their p62-dependent autophagic degradation to restrain interferon signaling. Further, IRGM deficiency results in defective mitophagy leading to the accumulation of defunct leaky mitochondria that release cytosolic DAMPs and mtROS. Hence, IRGM deficiency increases not only the levels of the sensors but also those of the stimuli that trigger the activation of the cGAS-STING and RIG-I-MAVS signaling axes, leading to robust induction of IFN responses. The flipside effect of high type I interferon response is protection against invading viruses. However, the role of human IRGM during viral infection has remained unclear. We have shown here that IRGM expression is increased upon viral infection. IFN responses induced by viral PAMPs are negatively regulated by IRGM. Conversely, IRGM depletion results in robust induction of key viral restriction factors including IFITMs, APOBECs, SAMHD1, tetherin, viperin, and HERC5/6. Additionally, antiviral processes such as MHC-I antigen presentation and stress granule signaling are enhanced in IRGM-deficient cells, indicating a robust cell-intrinsic antiviral immune state. Consistently, IRGM-depleted cells are resistant to the infection with seven viruses from five different families, including Togaviridae, Herpesviridae, Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Moreover, we show that Irgm1 knockout mice are highly resistant to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Taken together, this study defines the molecular mechanisms by which IRGM maintains interferon homeostasis and protects from autoimmune diseases. Also, it highlights IRGM as a broad therapeutic target to promote defense against a large number of human viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, CHIKV, and Zika virus.

Journal Papers

1. Bhattacharjee, R., Ghosh, S., Nath, A., Basu, A., Biswas, O., Patil, C. R., & Kundu, C. N. (2022). Theragnostic strategies harnessing the self-renewal pathways of stem-like cells in the acute myeloid leukemia. Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, 177, 103753. (IF:  6.312)


Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous and aggressive cancer of the Hematopoietic Stem/progenitor cells. It is distinguished by the uncontrollable clonal growth of malignant myeloid stem cells in the bone marrow, venous blood, and other body tissues. AML is the most predominant of leukemias occurring in adults (25%) and children (15-20%). The relapse after chemotherapy is a major concern in the treatment of AML. The overall 5-year survival rate in young AML patients is about 40-45% whereas in the elderly patients it is less than 10%. Leukemia stem-like cells (LSCs) having the ability to self-renew indefinitely, repopulate and persist longer in the G0/G1 phase play a crucial role in the AML relapse and refractoriness to chemotherapy. Hence, novel treatment strategies and diagnostic biomarkers targeting LSCs are being increasingly investigated. Through this review, we have explored the signaling modulations in the LSCs as the theragnostic targets. The significance of the self-renewal pathways in overcoming the treatment challenges in AML has been highlighted.

2. Surve, C., Banerjee, A. S. A., Chakraborty, R., Kumar, D., Butti, R., Gorain, M., Parida, S., Kundu, G. C., Shidhaye, S., & Patnaik, S. (2022). Antiproliferative and apoptotic potential of methotrexate lipid nanoparticles in a murine breast cancer model. Nanomedicine (London), 17(11), 753-764. (IF: 6.096 )


Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of novel methotrexate-loaded nanoparticles (MTX-NPs) in vitro and in vivo in the treatment of breast cancer. Materials & methods: MTX-NPs were tested for cellular uptake, cell viability, cell cycle, cellular wound migration and changes in tumor volume using characterized NPs.

Results: The solid lipid NPs (SLNPs) showed strong cellular uptake, increased apoptosis, controlled cytotoxicity at lower IC50 of methotrexate and a sizable reduction in tumor burden.

Conclusion: MTX-NP oral formulation can be a promising candidate in breast cancer treatment with improved cellular uptake and in vivo efficacy.

3. Mohanty, S., Patel, P., Jha, E., Panda, P. K., Kumari, P., Singh, S., Sinha, A., Saha, A. K., Kaushik, N. K., Raina, V., Verma, S. K., & Suar, M. (2022). In vivo intrinsic atomic interaction infer molecular eco-toxicity of industrial TiO2 nanoparticles via oxidative stress channelized steatosis and apoptosis in Paramecium caudatum. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 241, 113708. (IF: 6.291)


The ecotoxicological effect of after-usage released TiO2 nanoparticles in aquatic resources has been a major concern owing to their production and utilization in different applications. Addressing the issue, this study investigates the detailed in vivo molecular toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles with Paramecium caudatum. TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized at a lab scale using high energy ball milling technique; characterized for their physicochemical properties and investigated for their ecotoxicological impact on oxidative stress, steatosis, and apoptosis of cells through different biochemical analysis, flow cytometry, and fluorescent microscopy. TiO2 nanoparticles; TiO2 (N15); of size 36 ± 12 nm were synthesized with a zeta potential of – 20.2 ± 8.8 mV and bandgap of 4.6 ± 0.3 eV and exhibited a blue shift in UV-spectrum. Compared to the Bulk TiO2, the TiO2 (N15) exhibited higher cytotoxicity with a 24 h LC50 of 202.4 µg/ml with P. Caudatum. The mechanism was elucidated as the size and charge-dependent internalization of nanoparticles leading to abnormal physiological metabolism in oxidative stress, steatosis, and apoptosis because of their influential effect on the activity of metabolic proteins like SOD, GSH, MDA, and catalase. The study emphasized the controlled usage TiO2 nanoparticles in daily activity with a concern for ecological and biomedical aspects.

4. Devi, T. B., Raina, V. & Rajashekar, Y. (2022). A novel biofumigant from Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray for control of stored grain insect pests. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 184, 105116.  (IF:  3.963)


 For the well-being of human health as well as ecological concerns and the development of insect resistance to conventional chemical insecticides, efforts have increased worldwide, to find eco-friendly, effective and safer insect control agents which are of natural origin. A bioactive biofumigant molecule named dihydro-p-coumaric acid was isolated and characterized from the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. A. Gray following laboratory bioassays against the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica F (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and the rust-red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The isolated compound acted as a fumigant, toxic to adults of stored grain insect pests with LC50 values of 17.86, and 11.49 μg/L (S. oryzae), 19.80 and 10.29 μg/L (R. dominica) and 24.41 and 17.80 μg/L air (T. casatneum) respectively. Further, in vivo data reveal that the percentage of inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) was dose-dependent and in vitro results showed potent AChE inhibitor. The isolated compound acts as an efficient biofumigant against the stored grain insect pests and has no adverse effect on seed germination. From this study, we assume that the isolated biofumigant molecule has the ability for used in IPM programs for stored-grain pests because of its biofumigant activity.

5. Jena, B. C., Das, C. K., Banerjee, I., Bharadwaj, D., Majumder, R., Das, S., Biswas, A., Kundu, M., Roy, P. K., Kundu, C. N., & Mandal, M. (2022). TGF-β1 induced autophagy in cancer associated fibroblasts during hypoxia contributes EMT and glycolysis via MCT4 upregulation. Experimental cell research, 417(1), 113195. (IF: 3.905)


The Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF- β1) in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is the major cytokine that acts as a mediator of tumor-stroma crosstalk, which in fact has a dual role in either promoting or suppressing tumor development. The cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the major cell types in the TME, and the interaction with most of the epithelial cancers is the prime reason for cancer survival. However, the molecular mechanisms, associated with the TGF- β1 induced tumor promotion through tumor-CAF crosstalk are not well understood. In the Reverse Warburg effect, CAFs feed the adjacent cancer cells by lactate produced during the aerobic glycolysis. We hypothesized that the monocarboxylate transporter, MCT4 which is implicated in lactate efflux from the CAFs, must be overexpressed in the CAFs. Contextually, to explore the role of TGF- β1 in the hypoxia-induced autophagy in CAFs, we treated CoCl2 and external TGF- β1 to the human dermal fibroblasts and L929 murine fibroblasts. We demonstrated that hypoxia accelerated the TGF- β1 signaling and subsequent transformation of normal fibroblasts to CAFs. Moreover, we elucidated that synergistic induction of autophagy by hypoxia and TGF- β1 upregulate the aerobic glycolysis and MCT4 expression in CAFs. Furthermore, we showed a positive correlation between glucose consumption and MCT4 expression in the CAFs. Autophagy was also found to be involved in the EMT in hypoxic CAFs. Collectively, these findings reveal the unappreciated role of autophagy in TME, which enhances the CAF transformation and that promotes tumor migration and metastasis via the reverse Warburg effect.

6. Santos, F. H., Panda, S, Ferreira, D. C. M., Dey, G, Molina, G., & Pelissari, F.M. (2022). Targeting infections and inflammation through micro and nano-nutraceuticals. Food Bioscience, 49, 101891. (IF: 4.24)


Nowadays, the pharma and food industries have been gearing up to meet the urgent need for anti-infective and anti-inflammatory nutritional formulations. In this way, several nutraceutical compounds are being re–evaluated due to their established bioactivities. Few compounds have been or may be efficiently targeted against infections, inflammatory conditions and for immune modulation. However, for successful management of these metabolic conditions, the nutraceuticals need to be designed into effective nutritional formulations. Over recent years there have been tremendous progress in the re-engineering of structurally delivery vehicles which provide stability, enhance bioaccessibility and bioavailability of these compounds. In this perspective, this review focuses on the structural and functional aspects of several such bio-based delivery vehicles like the micro and nano particles, nano-emulsions and liposome-based models. The aim is to bring forth recent information on the efficacious nutraceuticals and the suitable delivery vehicles which would be useful against infections and inflammatory conditions.

7. Singh, K., Verma, S. K., Patel, P., Panda, P. K., Sinha, A., Das, B., Raina, V., Suar, M., & Ray, L. (2022). Hydoxylated β- and δ-Hexacholorocyclohexane metabolites infer influential intrinsic atomic pathways interaction to elicit oxidative stress-induced apoptosis for bio- toxicity. Environmental Research, 212 (Pt D):113496. (IF: 6.498)


Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) has been recognized as an effective insecticide to protect crops against grasshoppers, cohort insects, rice insects, wireworms, and other agricultural pests and; for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. It is a cyclic, saturated hydrocarbon, which primarily exists as five different stable isomers in the environment. Though the use of HCH is banned in most countries owing to its adverse effects on the environment, its metabolites still exist in soil and groundwater, because of its indiscriminate applications. In this study, a dose-dependent toxicity assay of the HCH isomers isolated from soil and water samples of different regions of Odisha, India was performed to assess the in vivo developmental effects and oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos. Toxicity analysis revealed a significant reduction in hatching and survivability rate along with morphological deformities (edema, tail malformations, spinal curvature) upon an increase in the concentration of HCH isomers; beta isomer exhibiting maximum toxicity (p < 0.05). Oxidative stress assay showed that ROS and apoptosis were highest in the fish exposed to β-2 and δ-2 isomers of HCH in comparison to the untreated one. Zebrafish proved to be a useful biological model to assess the biological effects of HCH isomers. In addition, the results suggest the implementation of precautionary measures to control the use of organochlorine compounds that can lead to a decrease in the HCH isomers in the field for a healthier environment.

8. Tarafdar, S., & Chowdhary, G.  (2022). Translating the Arabidopsis thaliana Peroxisome Proteome insights to Solanum lycopersium: Consensus versus Diversity.  Frontiers in cell and Developmental Biology, 10, 909604. (IF: 5.69)


Peroxisomes are small, single-membrane specialized organelles present in all eukaryotic organisms. The peroxisome is one of the nodal centers of reactive oxygen species homeostasis in plants, which are generated in a high amount due to various stress conditions. Over the past decade, there has been extensive study on peroxisomal proteins and their signaling pathways in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and a lot has been deciphered. However, not much impetus has been given to studying the peroxisome proteome of economically important crops. Owing to the significance of peroxisomes in the physiology of plants during normal and stress conditions, understating its proteome is of much importance. Hence, in this paper, we have made a snapshot of putative peroxisomal matrix proteins in the economically important vegetable crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, (L.) family Solanaceae). First, a reference peroxisomal matrix proteome map was generated for Arabidopsis thaliana using the available proteomic and localization studies, and proteins were categorized into various groups as per their annotations. This was used to create the putative peroxisomal matrix proteome map for S. lycopersicum. The putative peroxisome proteome in S. lycopersicum retains the basic framework: the bulk of proteins had peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS) type 1, a minor group had PTS2, and the catalase family retained its characteristic internal PTS. Apart from these, a considerable number of S. lycopersicum orthologs did not contain any “obvious” PTS. The number of PTS2 isoforms was found to be reduced in S. lycopersicum. We further investigated the PTS1s in the case of both the plant species and generated a pattern for canonical and non-canonical PTS1s. The number of canonical PTS1 proteins was comparatively lesser in S. lycopersicum. The non-canonical PTS1s were found to be comparable in both the plant species; however, S. lycopersicum showed greater diversity in the composition of the signal tripeptide. Finally, we have tried to address the lacunas and probable strategies to fill those gaps.

9. Kumar, G., Das, C., Acharya, A., Bhal, S., Joshi, M., Kundu, C. N., Choudhury, A. R., & Guchhait, S. K. (2022). Organocatalyzed umpolung addition for synthesis of heterocyclic-fused arylidene-imidazolones as anticancer agents. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry, 67, 116835. (IF: 3.641)


A strategy of “Nature-to-new” with iterative scaffold-hopping was considered for investigation of privileged ring/functional motif-elaborated analogs of natural aurones. An organocatalyzed umpolung chemistry based method was established for molecular-diversity feasible synthesis of title class of chemotypes i.e. (Z)-2-Arylideneimidazo[1,2-a]pyridinones and (Z)-2-Arylidenebenzo[d]imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-3-ones. Various biophysical experiments indicated their important biological properties. The analogs showed characteristic anticancer activities with efficiency more than an anticancer drug. The compounds induced apoptosis with arrest in the S phase of the cell cycle regulation. The compounds’ significant effect in up/down-regulation of various apoptotic proteins, an apoptosis cascade, and the inhibition of topoisomerases-mediated DNA relaxation process was identified. The analysis of the structure-activity relationship, interference with biological events and the drug-likeness physicochemical properties of the compounds in the acceptable window indicated distinctive medicinal molecule-to-properties of the investigated chemotypes.

10. Lin, S-C., Li Y., Hu F-Y., Wang C-L., Kuang Y-H., Sung C-L., Tsai S-F., Yang Z-W., Li C. P., Huang S-H., Liao C-T., Hechanova S.L., Jena K.K., & Chuang W-P. (2022). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the resistance of rice near-isogenic lines with BPH resistance genes. Botanical Studies, 63, 16. (IF: 2.7)


Background: Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Crops with a high nitrogen input usually have high yields. However, outbreaks of brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH) frequently occur on rice farms with excessive nitrogen inputs. Rice plants carrying BPH resistance genes are used for integrated pest management. Thus, the impact of nitrogen on the resistance of rice near-isogenic lines (NILs) with BPH resistance genes was investigated. Results: We tested these NILs using a standard seedbox screening test and a modified bulk seedling test under different nitrogen treatments. The amount of nitrogen applied had an impact on the resistance of some lines with BPH resistance genes. In addition, three NILs (NIL-BPH9, NIL-BPH17, and NIL-BPH32) were further examined for antibiosis and antixenosis under varying nitrogen regimes. The N. lugens nymph population growth rate, honeydew excretion, female fecundity, and nymph survival rate on the three NILs were not affected by different nitrogen treatments except the nymph survival rate on NIL-BPH9 and the nymph population growth rate on NIL-BPH17. Furthermore, in the settlement preference test, the preference of N. lugens nymphs for IR24 over NIL-BPH9 or NIL-BPH17 increased under the high-nitrogen regime, whereas the preference of N. lugens nymphs for IR24 over NIL-BPH32 was not affected by the nitrogen treatments. Conclusions: Our results indicated that the resistance of three tested NILs did not respond to different nitrogen regimes and that NIL-BPH17 exerted the most substantial inhibitory effect on N. lugens growth and development.

11. Dhal, A. K., Young, G. M., Yun, S., & Mahapatra, R. K.  (2022). Computational analysis of Elongation Factor-2 (EF-2) protein of Cryptosporidium parvum for identification of therapeutics. Biologia, 77(5), 1447–1457. (IF: 1.35)


Cryptosporidium parvum (Cp) is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite that infects the intestinal tract of mammals. C. parvum oocysts are transmitted mainly through contact with contaminated water and then reproduce sexually and asexually in the intestinal lining cells, resulting in diarrhea. Elongation Factor 2 (EF-2) of C. parvum is a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein that is essential for protein synthesis and is regarded as a drug target for therapeutic intervention. EF-2 catalyses the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the amino-acyl site to the peptidyl site of the ribosome during the elongation phase of protein synthesis. In this study, the sequence similarity between the template structures and the EF-2 protein of C. parvum was considered for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of the target protein through the homology modelling approach by MODELLER v9.21 software. By using different computer-aided drug designing techniques such as structure and ligand-based studies, the potential inhibitor molecules were enlisted. Compounds like CHEMBL1784973 and ZINC_03830706 are reported as the best inhibitors against the CpEF-2 protein. Furthermore, the reliability of the binding mode of the hit molecule ZINC_03830706 is validated through a complex MD simulation study for a time frame of 100 ns in an aqueous environment. The compound identified from the computational approach can be considered through experimental studies in the future.

12. Arega, A. M., Dhal, A. K., Nayak, S., & Mahapatra, R. K. (2022). In silico and in vitro study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv uncharacterized protein (RipD): an insight on tuberculosis therapeutics. Journal of Molecular Modeling, 28(6), 171. (IF:  1.81)


Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is responsible for the highest global health problem, with the deaths of millions of people. With prevalence of multiple drug resistance (MDR) strains and extended therapeutic times, it is important to discover small molecule inhibitors against novel hypothetical proteins of the pathogen. In this study, a virtual screening protocol was carried out against MtbH37Rv hypothetical protein RipD (Rv1566c) for the identification of potential small molecule inhibitors. The 3D model of the protein structure binding site was used for virtual screening (VS) of inhibitors from the Pathogen Box, followed by its validation through a molecular docking study. The stability of the protein-ligand complex was assessed using a 150 ns molecular dynamics simulation. MM-PBSA and MM-GBSA are the two approaches that were used to perform the trajectory analysis and determine the binding free energies, respectively. The ligand binding was observed to be stable across the entire time frame with an approximate binding free energy of -22.9916 kcal/mol. The drug-likeness of the inhibitors along with a potential anti-tuberculosis compound was validated by ADMET prediction software. Furthermore, a CFU inhibition assay was used to validate the best hit compound’s in vitro inhibitory efficacy against a non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis MC2155 under low nutrient culture conditions. The study reported that the compound proposed in our study (Pathogen Box ID: MMV687700) will be useful for the identification of potential inhibitors against Mtb in future.

Patent Filed/Published/Granted

  1. Dr. Sung-Ryul Kim, Dr. Prahalada G.D, Dr. Kshirod K. Jena. Patent title: Methods of increasing outcrossing rates in gramineae (USA patent publication No. WO/2022/038536 A1)


A method of producing a Gramineae plant, the method comprising (a) expressing in a Gramineae plant or plant cell expression of a polynucleotide encoding OLLS1 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 12 or 13 or a homolog thereof capable of increasing stigma length of the Gramineae plant, wherein when the expressing is by crossing the plant with another plant expressing the polypeptide, selecting for stigma length is performed using markers located between ST87 to ST99; and (b) growing or regenerating the plant.

2. Mr. Rahul Chatterjee, Dr. Rahul Modak, Dr. Vishakha Raina, Dr. Mrutyunjay Suar Ms. Ritu Ghosh, Dr. Gurmeet Singh. Patent Name: An enzyme and formulation thereof for reducing formation of acrylamide in food processing (Indian patent filed).


An enzyme and formulation thereof for reducing formation of acrylamide in food processing.

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