School of Mechanical Engineering (Aug – Sep 2022)


Journal Papers

1. Mukherjee, S., Mishra, P.C., Aljuwayhel, N.F., Ali, N. & Chaudhuri, P. (2022). Thermo-fluidic performance of SiO2–ZnO/water hybrid nanofluid on enhancement of heat transport in a tube: Experimental results. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 182, 107808. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2022.107808. (Impact Factor: 4.779)


This paper reports an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and flow performance of silica-zinc oxide (SiO2–ZnO)/water hybrid nanofluid (HNF) flowing inside a tube with constant heat flux at different Reynolds number (Re) from 7743 to 23,228. A well-stabilized SiO2–ZnO/water HNF with 0.025–0.10weight fractions (φ) was produced via two-step method. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of HNF were measured. The convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of the HNF were determined. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of HNF showed notable enhancements as compared to water. The convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) of HNF enhanced with increasing φ and Re. A maximum of 29.44% enhancement in CHTC was obtained with φ of 0.10 at Re = 20,131 when compared to water. Further, the friction factor and pressure drop of HNF increased with increasing φ. A maximum of 17.45% increase in friction factor and a maximum increase of 24% in pressure drop were recorded with φ of 0.10 at Re = 23,228 as compared to water. New CHTC and friction factor correlations of high accuracies (R2 > 90%) have been proposed. A Figure of Merit (FOM) was drawn to describe the thermal performance of HNF. Based on the analysis, the optimum thermal performance was achieved with φ of 0.10 at Re = 20,131.

2. Khadanga, V., Mukherjee, S., Mishra, P.C. & Chakrabarty, S. (2022). Heat transport performance of nanoparticles in gases: case study of Al2O3 nanoaerosol. Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 95(5), 1232- 1239.


The concept of nanofluids has already shown that the heat transfer potential of traditional working fluids could be improved by dispersing various nanosized particles in them. Up to now, liquids are used as the base materials and dispersed nanoparticles are solid. In the present paper, we study solid nanoparticles dispersed in a gaseous medium (nanoaerosol), and the behavior of heat transfer of nanoparticles mixed with a gas flow is analyzed. Nanoparticles of Al2O3 mixed with an air stream are considered inside a tube subjected to a constant heat flux of 696.534 kW/m2. The timescale analysis of heat transfer in a nanoparticle–gas mixture is carried out. The effect of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number Re on the convective aerosol heat transfer coefficient and the Nusselt number is analyzed. The timescale study shows that conduction is dominant in a nanoaerosol. The maximum enhancements in the convective aerosol heat transfer coefficient and the Nusselt number are obtained as 59 and 55.27%, respectively, with increasing particle volume fraction in the range of 0.002–0.01.

3. Agarwal, M., & Singh, S. (2022). Upper bound analysis of closed-die forging of eccentrically-located SiCp AMC preforms. Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 25(2), 275-285.


The paper presents analysis of closed-die forging of eccentrically-located SiCp AMC cylindrical preforms at cold conditions using ‘UpperBound0 approach. The deformation has been considered in two subsequent stages, i.e. frees barreling and constrained deformation stages. Second stage was again divided into two modes, i.e. unilateral and bilateral constrained deformations. For basic experimental analysis, the preforms were fabricated via liquid metal stir casting manufacturing route using LM6 Aluminium alloy and Silicon Carbide particles as reinforcements. These preforms were located eccentrically in the closed-die with respect to die axis and subsequently forged into double-hub flange components. The generalized expressions for velocity field, strain rates, various energy dissipations and average forging load were formulated for all the above deformation stage and results were compared with the experimental findings. It is expected that the present work will be useful for the analysis of the precision net-shape flashless closed-die forging operations at cold conditions.

4. Dey, S., Mishra, R., Mohapatra, M., & Sabut, S. (2022). Micro active catheters and embolization techniques: a brief review based on design and working efficacy. Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications, 34 (4), 2230001.


Micro catheters are thin-walled devices gaining pivotal importance in the field of micro invasive surgeries. The need for an efficient design of a micro catheter with the enhancement of its prime characteristics like-kink resistance, lower bending response, increased perumbular capacities, etc., has been the key parameters for research among biomedical engineers. The article highlights the nuances in the technology in the fabrication of micro active catheters and the procedure and necessity of embolization in the process of catheterization. Efficacies of different designs of micro active catheters were studied based on a variety of clinical data trials by several researchers and doctors. Superior materials capable of enhancing the torque efficacy of the device like auxetic materials and their effect on bending angles were studied. Clinical trials were undertaken based on various designs and approaches for the device and the critical characteristics were studied. The micro active catheter with guide-wire shows maximum bending angle and considerable torque making it ideal for micro invasive procedures in constricted as well as divergent blood vessels. 

5. Mohapatra, B., Tripathy, S., Singhal, D., & Saha, R. (2022). Significance of digital technology in manufacturing sectors: Examination of key factors during COVID-19. Research in Transportation Economics, 93, 101134. (Impact Factor: 2.904)


The Covid-19 pandemic has been the center of human existential chaos throughout the world, which also has affected the manufacturer in an extraordinary and unexpected way. With the decline in demand, supply, and workforce the industries are driven into the gloom. The concerned research objective is to explore the factors which impact manufacturing throughout the world during the epidemic of Covid-19. Further, it delineates the usage of advanced digital technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), big data analytics (BDA), and internet of things (IoT) to bring on solutions/approaches to evolving to pandemic-constrained manufacturing. An overall of twelve key factors is determined from extensive literature reviews which are categorized into challenges and solutions. Here, ISM methodology has been used to establish the interrelationship among identified twelve challenges and solutions. Further, MICMAC analysis has categorized them according to their driving and dependence power. The consequences display the absence of autonomous factors whilst efficient supply chain, centralized decision making, product diversification, and JIT along with revenue generation turn out to be significant dependant factors. The facilitators like digital technologies are the pre-cursors to the ultimate solution of revenue generation and termed preliminary solutions. The outcomes of this research will suggest eventual policy recommendations for industry leaders to progress manufacturing within Covid-19 constraints. It will offer a sturdy base for manufacturers around the world to tune to the new digital transformation of the production scenario.

6. Sahoo, T.K., & Ghose, P. (2022). Effect of Inlet Swirl on Combustion Performance and Soot Formation of a Turbulent Methane-Air Non-Premixed Flame. Jordan Journal of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, 16 (2), 309 – 318.


In the present study, the effect of swirl intensity on flame temperature, radiation heat flux, soot formation, dispersion, and other major species concentrations were investigated for methane-air non-premixed combustion. Harwell standard furnace has been chosen for computational modeling. Eddy dissipation combustion model is used to evaluate reaction rate considering one-step global combustion reaction mechanism for methane. Standard k-ε turbulent model, discrete ordinate (DO) radiation model, and Moss-Brookes soot models are used for simulation. The weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) is employed to calculate the radiation absorption coefficient. A fair agreement has been observed between published experimental and simulation results. The numerical results show that as the swirl intensity increases, the radial component of the flow increases, hence the flame becomes wider. Consequently, the temperature distribution, soot formation, and the species mass concentration are also strongly influenced by the swirl intensity. It has also been observed that the flame temperature decreases with the consideration of soot generation due to an increase in radiation heat loss of eight percent. Incomparable to any swirl, the average wall heat flux increases to 62.72% when the swirl number is 5.

7. Sahoo, B., Sharma, N., Sahoo, B., Ramteke, P.M., Panda, S.K., & Mahmoud, S.R. (2022, October). Nonlinear vibration analysis of FGM sandwich structure under thermal loadings. Structures, 44, 1392-1402. (Impact Factor: 4.010)


The geometrically nonlinear thermal frequencies of the functionally graded (FG) sandwich structures are predicted numerically in the current work considering the variable temperature distributions (linear and nonlinear). For numerical analysis of the FG sandwich structure, an in-house finite element code has been developed in MATLAB using the higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) and Green–Lagrange nonlinear strain kinematics. The governing equation of motion for the graded sandwich structure is obtained using Hamilton’s principles, and the direct iterative method is used to predict the nonlinear vibration response of the sandwich structure. The temperature distributions along the thickness of the sandwich structure are considered. Temperature dependent material properties are considered in the present work for computation of frequency responses under thermal environment. The material properties are described in accordance with the power-law distribution. The current models are initially validated with the published results. The influence of various input parameters, i.e. the curvature ratio (CRO), thickness ratio (TRO), aspect ratio (ARO), boundary conditions, and power-law indices on the nonlinear vibration behaviours of FG sandwich structure have been studied.

8. Kumar, V., Dewangan, H.C., Sharma, N., & Panda, S.K. (2022). Numerical frequency and SERR response of damaged (crack/delamination) multilayered composite under themomechanical loading: An experimental verification. Composite Structures, 293, 115709. (Impact Factor: 6.603)


This research predicted the influences of combined damage (delamination and crack) and thermomechanical loading on the modal values and strain energy release rate (SERR) of the curved shell panel. The results are obtained computationally using a computer code (MATLAB platform) with the help of isoparametric finite element (FE) steps and the higher-order deformation polynomial. The Hamilton principle is adopted to obtain the final governing equation for the frequency analysis of the damaged structure. Additionally, the deflection, strain, and stresses are recorded by back substituting the numerical solutions to compute the desired energy values. The obtained solution accuracy and the stabilities are verified by performing the convergence and the comparison (published frequencies and SERR) studies. Moreover, a few lab-scale modal experimentations (cracked laminated composite with and without temperature increments) are carried out to accomplish the proposed model. Lastly, a series of numerical examples related to the SERR and modal responses of the current damaged curved composite structure is solved by considering the geometrical, material, and damage parameters (shape and sizes of delamination and orientation of crack). The SERR values calculated using the virtual crack closure technique. The pointwise comprehensions related to the inputs and the model are envisaged in details.

9. Jena, H., Panigrahi, A., & Jena, M. (2022). Mechanical property of jute fibre reinforced polymer composite filled with clam shell filler: a marine waste. Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies, 1-17.


The present work utilises clam shell, a marine waste as filler material in a natural fibre composite. Different contents of clam shell filler of 0, 5 and 10 wt.% are considered for preparing the composite by the hand lay-up technique. The addition clamshell filler in the composite improves the tensile strength and tensile modulus by 51.40 and 63.47 % from 0 to 5 wt.% of clam shell filler, respectively. Similarly, flexural strength, flexural modulus and inter laminar shear strength of the composites show the maximum value at 5 wt.% filler addition. Beyond this value, the mechanical strength is reduced. Hardness values of the composites are increased with the increase in inclusion of the clam shell filler. In contrast, the addition of filler reduces the impact strength of the composites. Again, to determine the viscoelastic behaviour of the jute epoxy composite with the clam shell filler, dynamic mechanical analysis is performed. Storage modulus and loss modulus are found to be increasing with the increase in wt.% of filler. For all composites, the damping factor improves with the increase in temperature and obtained the highest height in the transition region. It is low below the glass transition temperature.

10. Mandal, P., Roy, S., & Singh, U.P. (2022). Investigation on the optical and electrical performance of aluminium doped gallium oxide thin films. Optical and Quantum Electronics, 54(8), 1-15. (Impact Factor: 2.794).


Gallium oxide is an extensively researched wide band gap material that has numerous applications in optoelectronic devices. This article focuses on fabrication of amorphous gallium oxide (a-gallium oxide) deposited by RF plasma sputtering at low temperature on glass substrates to fabricate large area flexible electronics. Particularly, this work aims to improve their optical and electrical performances by metal doping as well as substrate pre-heating. Here, the properties of 9.5% aluminium doped a-Ga2O3 and 6.1% europium doped a-Ga2O3, grown by co-sputtering on soda lime glass substrate at 400 °C were analyzed. The thin films produced were nano-structured with an average grain size of ~ 12 nm. The maximum optical transmittance in the UV–vis range for 9.5% Al and 6.1% Eu doped a-Ga2O3 is 82% and 84%, respectively. Although the variations in optical band gap are not appreciable with doping Al and Eu to undoped a-Ga2O3 ~ 3.98 eV, their electronic properties show tremendous difference. Hall effects measurements show that by doping with 9.5% Al, the a-gallium oxide thin films record an increase in both mobility and conductivity of 2 orders. On the other hand, the 6.1% Eu doped a-Ga2O3 does not show any appreciable change in both mobility and conductivity. This was further investigated through first principle density function theory (DFT) to correlate the structure to its properties for both the dopants. Therefore, aluminium doping in a-gallium oxide shows potential towards its application in flexible and cheaper electronic devices.

11. Panda, S.K., Rana, B.K., & Kumar, P. (2022). Entrainment in multifluid systems, and rotation induced occurrences. European Journal of Mechanics-B/Fluids, 96, 156–172. (Impact Factor: 2.598).


Fluid entrainment is a complex and deeply attractive phenomenon that is frequently encountered in both industry and nature. In general, entrainment deals with the basic understanding of penetration one fluid into another which leads to occurrence of complex interfacial structure. The present article addresses a detailed description of the recent studies on entrainment dynamics caused by the external rotational flux across the interfaces is elaborated. Despite of considerable progress in understanding rotation induced entrainment, there are still several questions unanswered due to its difficulty, unpredictability, three-dimensional effects, and chaotic nature. Therefore, here we explained numerous numerical, experimental, and analytical investigations with their relevance in engineering applications wherein the increase of interfacial area causes enhancement of heat and mass transfer. The description also includes various patterns of entrained fluid entities due to rotations induced across the interface. Furthermore, the entrainment behaviors have been critically analyzed to draw out the distinct categorization of rollers relying on parameters such as submergence ratio with different gas–liquid pairs.

12. Pati, P.R., & Satpathy, M.P. (2022). Effect of process parameters on sliding wear performance of red brick dust-filled glass–epoxy composites. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, 236(9), 1846-1854. (Impact Factor: 1.818)


This research is focused on the study of the tribological properties of epoxy composites reinforced with red brick dust and glass fiber. Wear tests are conducted on a pin-on-disk apparatus. The wear rate and coefficient of friction are measured after tribological tests. The relative effect of process parameters such as sliding velocity, normal load, filler content on specific wear rate, and coefficient of friction is also examined using the Taguchi model and analysis of variance technique. Furthermore, an innovative optimization approach is adopted by combining grey relational analysis with the metaheuristic firefly algorithm to obtain the desired response values. A nonlinear regression model is generated to cater to the relationship between the grey relational grade and the process parameters. This model is further employed in the firefly algorithm to move the firefly to the neighboring brighter and attractive firefly. The most influencing factors for wear rate and friction coefficient are sliding velocity and normal load, respectively. This work not only opens up an opportunity for value-added utilization of waste material such as red brick dust but also the proposed metaheuristic approach can be customized and applied for any multi-response optimization problem.

13. Das, P., Kar, S.P., & Sarangi, R.K. (2022). Review on thermal performance of heat exchanger using phase change material. International Journal of Energy Research, 46(12), 16208 -16240. (Impact Factor: 4.672)


This article reports detailed investigation of using different Phase Change Materials (PCM) in various designs of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Devices: specifically, heat exchanger. The focus is on the performance analysis of different types of heat exchangers acting as TES having various PCMs which are substantially reviewed in this paper. The study highlights the difference in their geometry and performance output. Further, the importance of different performance enhancement methods with parametric study of different heat exchangers using PCM is described. From the detailed investigation, finally, it is realised that the different factors such as no. of outer tubes, no. of inner tubes, tube material selected, type of PCM, provision of an extended surface, use of different metal foams and nanoparticles, various types of composites, charging and discharging characteristics and packed and cascaded units are different heat transfer enhancement methods to improve the heat transfer. A novel kind of heat exchanger known as Webbed tube heat exchanger using PCM is discussed for an efficient TES unit. Further, a review of quantitative analysis of melting time, solidification time, charging and discharging time is discussed.

14. Chavda, A., Mehta, P., & Harichandan, A. (2022). Numerical analysis of multiphase flow in chemical looping reforming process for hydrogen production and CO2 capture. Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow, 4(4), 360-376.


The unsteady characteristics of bubble dynamics inside the air reactor within the first 0–40 s of reforming has always been studied for defining the design criteria of the reactor. In the study, a temporal aspect of the hydrodynamics and chemical kinetics in the reactor of a chemical looping reforming system in form of volume fraction contours of solid species and molar fraction of H2O has been numerically simulated by considering manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) based metal oxides as oxygen carriers. The Finite Volume Method based approach has been employed to simulate the steam reactor model by encompassing it as a fluidized bed reactor. The granular flow under kinetic theory has been employed using a multiphase Eulerian-based approach for both gas and solid phases in the form of a shrinking core model. An influence of various operating parameters such as particle size of the oxygen carriers, steam inlet velocity, and temperature of the steam reactor on an overall conversion rate of iron-based oxide (FeO) and manganese-based oxide (MnO). The maximum steam conversion rate for FeO and MnO was observed at 32% and 34% at 0.6 m/s steam velocity, 48% and 60% at a maximum temperature of 1273 K, and 47% and 64% at a particle size of 100 μm, respectively.

15. Sinha, G.S., Kumar Mishra, N., Muthukumar, P., & Sharma, M. (2022). Thermal performance and emission analysis of self-aspirated kerosene pressure stove with porous radiant burner using kerosene nanofuels. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 1-10. (Impact Factor: 3.519)


This paper reports the development of a self-aspirated ceria-based nano-particle blended kerosene-fueled pressure stove to work on Porous Radiant Burner and its performance analysis. The novel self-aspiration system makes the stove exhibit higher thermal efficiencies and lower emissions than any other design reported before. It was found that the new stove exhibits ~ 6% higher thermal efficiency than the conventional stove when kerosene is used and ~ 10% higher values with the nanofuel. Furthermore, performances of the Porous Radiant Burner were tested with a CO, and NOx emissions of the PRB-kerosene stove were found significantly low (80% lower than the conventional stove). The newly developed Porous Radiant Burner stove performs close to an LPG stove in terms of thermal efficiency and emission level.

16. Alok, P. & Sahu, D. (2022). Numerical analysis of a two-phase injection refrigeration cycle using R32. Journal of Thermal Engineering, 8(2), 157-168.


The present paper reports the performance of a popular refrigerant R32 (Difluoromethane, CF2H2) experiencing the two phase injection process. Two phase injection process may lower the discharge temperature of a multistage compressor. In order to investigate the role and impact of two-phase injection on a compressor, a Scroll compressor is selected because scroll compressor has high tolerance for liquid refrigerant. A reputed compressor is chosen where all the operating conditions and specifications are available in public domain. The modelling and analysis of refrigeration system is carried out using a simple MATLAB code. Around 200 iterations were performed for four different condensing and evaporating temperatures. The maximum reduction in discharge temperature is found to be 44°C when compared to R410A used in the same system.

17. Chaudhuri, S., Mohanty, R.L., & Mishra, V.K. (2022). Convective heat transfer in electromagnet hydrodynamic flow of third grade fluids through large parallel plates: a study on effect of parametric variation on thermal characteristics. Sādhanā, 47(2), 1-14. (Impact Factor: 1.214).


Electromagnet hydrodynamic flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian third grade fluid through two parallel plates of large width are studied for both heating and cooling. The plates are subjected to uniform heat fluxes. A magnetic field and an electric field are externally imposed. The effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating are included in the analysis. The non-linear equations governing the physical situation are solved by employing the Least Square Method (LSM), a semi-analytical technique widely applied for solving non-linear problems. For implementing the least square method, the presence of any small parameter is not required. Non-dimensional velocity and temperature distributions are obtained and the effects of the third grade fluid parameters, Hartmann number, electric field parameter, Brinkman number on the velocity, temperature, and Nusselt number are discussed. The results imply that the Nusselt number reverses its sign when the Brinkmann number reaches a critical value. The bulk mean temperature decreases so much that the difference between the wall temperature and the bulk mean temperature becomes negative, which results in a negative Nusselt number (indicating heat transfer from the fluid). In the case of heating, the Nusselt number increases with the Hartmann number for all values of the third grade fluid parameter.

18. Pandey, V., Yadav, M.K., Gupta, A., Mohanta, K., Panda, S.K., & Singh, V.K. (2022). Synthesis, morphological and thermomechanical characterization of light weight silica foam via reaction generated thermo-foaming process. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 42(14), 6671-6683. (Impact Factor: 6.364)


Low-cost thermo-foaming technique involving sucrose dehydration reaction with H2SO4 has been used for ceramic foam processing. The heat and gas generated during the reaction induces a thermo-foaming effect in the sucrose-ceramic mixture. This converts the sucrose-ceramic slurry into a carbonaceous porous ceramic-scaffold. The converted carbon is seen to agglutinate with the ceramic particles. During sintering, they are removed subsequently, thereby enlarging the pores. Influence of solids-loading, sintering temperature and H2SO4 concentration on the foaming behaviour, pore morphology and thermo-mechanical properties are studied. The fabricated silica foams are found to have porosity within the range of 70 %− 90 % and compressive strength of 0.8–2.8 MPa. The extreme porosity of the silica foams and their intercrystallite pores within the struts results in the low thermal conductivity (0.0943 Wm−1K−1) of the specimens. The fabricated foam is seen as a promising material for insulation applications like catalyst supports, filters and bio-scaffolds.

19. Yadav, M.K., Pandey, V., Mohanta, K., & Singh, V.K. (2022). A low-cost approach to develop silica doped Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) scaffold by valorizing animal bone waste and rice husk for tissue engineering applications. Ceramics International, 48 (17), 25335 – 25345. (Impact Factor: 5.532)


In the present study Hydroxyapatite (HAp) derived Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) and Silica (SiO2) based scaffold was successfully fabricated for the first time by effective utilizing various waste such as animal waste bone (AWB) and rice husk (RH) as a source of HAp and SiO2 respectively. Scaffold development involved simple steps comprising of segregation of waste materials followed by sample preparation through die compaction and sintering (1000 °C and 1300 °C). Advanced characterization techniques like XRD, SEM, TEM, and FTIR were employed to study the properties of the waste materials as well as the developed composite scaffold. The presence of silica from RH combines with the HAp during high temperature sintering and initiates the phenomenon of phase transformation of HAp to TCP along with the formation of a glassy phase. The extent of phase transformation increases as the wt% of RH increases. XRD analysis revealed the development of different phases. SEM microstructure shows that the addition of silica restricts the grain growth and supports the formation of crystalline glassy phase termed as Si-TCP. FTIR results confirmed the presence of phosphate, carbonate, and hydroxyl groups in the sintered samples. The porosity of the scaffold was in the range of 34–61% and the compressive strength was up to 4.1 MPa. The SEM images of scaffold dipped in simulated body fluid (SBF) shows formation of apatite layer throughout the surface. The bioactivity of the scaffold was highly influenced by the addition of silica in the HAp matrix. The apatite forming ability of the developed porous was much greater than that of pure HAp for the same incubation period. The obtained properties of the developed scaffold are comparable to that of natural bone. Thus the present work creates an opportunity to use AWB for the development of composite for tissue engineering applications.

20. Kumari, J., Tiwari, M., Mohanta, K., & Singh, V.K. (2022). Fabrication and characterization of silica ceramic compact prepared using Aloevera mucilage as a binder. International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, 19(6), 3030 – 3039. (Impact Factor: 2.328)


In this study, silica compacts were fabricated through a powder processing route at different compaction pressure, using Aloe-Vera (AV) mucilage as a binder. The silica compacts were prepared at 90, 100, and 110 MPa compaction pressure using 0%–16 wt% of AV binder. The optimum amount of AV binder was 14 wt% for both 90 and 100 MPa and 12 wt% for 110 MPa. The maximum achieved green density and green strength of silica compacts at the optimum binder amount were 62.3% and 4 MPa, respectively at 110 MPa compaction pressure. The green silica compacts prepared at 110 MPa compaction pressure exhibited a minimum porosity of 21% and maximum flexural strength of 15 MPa after sintering at 1400°C. The green silica compacts with the optimum amount of binder were strong enough for machining. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the functional groups present in AV mucilage. The binder burnout characteristic of AV mucilage in the silica compact was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. Additionally, AV gel acted as a binder and solvent simultaneously for ceramic compaction.

21. Jyoti, V.P., Yadav, M. K., Mohanta, K., & Singh, V.K. (2022). Green Properties of Dry Pressed Alumina Compact Prepared Using Aloe Vera Gel and Sucrose as a Binder. Transactions of the Indian Ceramic Society, 81(1), 7-14. (Impact Factor: 2.355).


The present study is focused on the scope of aloe vera (AV) gel and sucrose as a binder to prepare green ceramic compact samples through dry pressing. The alumina compacts having 0-14 wt% (0-2.8 wt% on dry basis) AV gel and 0-2 wt% sucrose binder have been prepared as a function of moisture content at optimum compaction pressure. The green properties of the resulting samples have been characterized through SEM, FTIR, etc and compared with other binders. Primary results revealed that alumina compact with an optimum binder content attained maximum green density and flexural strength. The maximum green density and maximum green flexural strength are 64% and 13.5 Mpa, respectively. The experimental results have also been correlated with the microstructure of green compacts. Dry pressed compacts are sufficiently strong for green machining. The strength of binder-based green ceramic samples has been attributed to better particle packing due to adsorbing and plasticizing properties of AV gel and sucrose binder, as revealed by IR analysis. The sintered properties of fired samples at 1600°C have exhibited minimum (2.3%) porosity. Therefore, the current study creates a scope of AV gel and sucrose as a binder for the green processing of alumina-based compacts.

22. Sahoo, B.P., Das, D., & Chaubey, A.K. (2021). Strengthening mechanisms and modelling of mechanical properties of submicron-TiB2 particulate reinforced Al 7075 metal matrix composites. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 825, 141873. (Impact Factor: 6.044)


The physics of matrix-reinforcement consonance in metal matrix composites (MMCs) is quite complex and it is difficult to quantify the effects of individual parameters on the composite properties. Strengthening mechanisms proposed so far are under assumptions of uniform particle dispersion and perfectly bonded interface. However, practically it is quite difficult to achieve a perfect uniformity in particle dispersion, and a perfect interface bonding may not be achieved through liquid state processing of MMCs. This paper accentuates on implementation of various established strengthening mechanisms on mechanical properties of Al 7075/submicron-TiB2 MMCs, synthesized through semisolid stirring and ultrasonic agitation assisted squeeze casting route. Analytical models were proposed to predict elastic modulus and yield strength of the MMCs considering the effects of porosity, and the proposed models were validated with the experimental results and predicted results of some established models. Reasonable agreement of the proposed model was attained with the experimental results and the established models, more prominently at higher volume fractions of particle incorporation.

Conference Papers

1. Nayak, S. K., Behera, S. P., Mishra, P. C., & Sarkar, A. (2023). Measurement of Local Spray Impingement Density by Using a Novel Patternator. Recent Advances in Mechanical Engineering (pp. 495-502). Springer, Singapore.


The current investigation confronts the measurement of the local impingement density of fluid spray which plays crucial role in ultra-fast cooling of heated metal surfaces in steel industry, electronic chip cooling, automobile industry for fuel injection, aviation, etc. An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to explore the influence of several controlling variables to enhance the spray density of a mechanical patternator. The flow behavior of the air atomizing nozzle was investigated at various parametric combinations and conditions. The working fluid used in this study was normal water-assisted with a range of air pressure from 2 to 4 bar. The amount of water was accumulated by the tubes attached to the patternator, and impingement density was calculated at the designated locations of the tubes.

Books / Book Chapters

1. Mishra, P.C., Noor, M. M., & Hoang, A. T.  (2022) Advances in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 1st Edition, 1-378, Taylor & Francis, CRC Press.


This book presents selected proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering-2020 (ICAMIE-2020) and highlights the research hotspots in next generation mechanical system design, thermal and fluid system design, materials and smart manufacturing processes and industrial engineering. This field covers the topics which include modern-age smart materials, materials processing and applications, smart machinery and machine design, system dynamics and simulation, bio mimics, energy system, micro- and nano- scale transport, automotive engineering, advance material characterization and testing, green manufacturing, intelligent systems, human factors, production planning & control etc. This book also provides the meaningful research content along with the various applications to stimulate the intellectual excitement of the researchers. This proceedings book can be an imperative reference for researchers, professionals and industry personnel to take their research up to next echelon for proficient professional practice.

2. Swain, S., Kumar, A., Singh, Y., Singh, A., Ganguly, A., Sinha, A. R., … & Nayak, B. (2022). Exploring Jatropha as a Multifaceted Shrub: A Comprehensive Review. Advances in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 228-235.


Importance of the fossil fuel is beyond description but unfortunately its reserve is limited. Vegetable oils and their biodiesels partially succeed in facing the energy requirement of society, but their characteristics are unable to touch the quality level of petroleum products. Properties of some non-edible oils resemble with petro-Diesel properties and jatropha is one of them. Though in India, jatropha use is not so widely observed, still in South American countries like Brazil, Chilli and in some other tropical nations, it is largely cultivated, because of its multidimensional use. Now a days, many nations have joined hands to verify whether in future jatropha oil can act as a substitute to fossil fuel, which will be very useful in reducing the hegemony of Arab countries. This paper relates to properties, preparation and scope of different non consumable oils in general and jatropha oil in particular.

3. Saha, P., Raja, P., Sinha, A. K., Behera, R. K., Ashutosh, K., Gautam, S., Chakraborty, P., Khan, B., Saikia, R., Mishra, A., Mishra, P.C. & Nayak, B. (2022). Biogas Production, Utilisation and Recent Updates in the State of Odisha: A Comprehensive Review. Advances in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 206-213.


Now a days, the huge increase in the population growth is giving a great challenge to the researchers to replace the fossil fuel by the renewable energy sources. Because of the shortage of natural resources, the researchers are moving towards the manmade fuels, by utilising the renewable sources of energy. The most significant sources of renewable energy in India are biomass, biogas, cosmological, wind and hydro power etc. It is important to note that the Biogas is one of the popular source of energy for isolated areas. Biogas is most commonly produced from various waste materials, which do not have any cost, like cow dung and other animal waste, kitchen waste, municipal waste and from the plant matter such as leaves and water hyacinth. Biomass is one possible source of renewable energy, besides that it absorbs the waste materials and protects the environment from global warming. Moreover, the recycling of the nutrient rich residues can be further utilised for fields, for improving the energy levels of soil. A brief review of the main translation processes and its utilisation is provided, with specific regard to the production of a fuel suitable for spark ignition and compression ignition gas engines.

4. Kumar, V. B., Srivastav, A., Chatterjee, P. R., Kundu, U., Damle, N., Dheeraj, P., Jha, U., Singh, A., Shahdeo, A., Deka, H., Agarwal, S., Mishra, P.C. & Nayak, B. (2022). Emission Analysis of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester Blends. Advances in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (pp. 236-242). CRC Press.


In the present era, due to the high brake thermal efficiency of modern diesel engines, the conventional fuel consumption in agricultural sector has increased to an extreme end, which is causing drastic depletion of the natural resources. Due to good oxidation characteristics and lubricating nature, the biodiesel is attracting the world to its side as an alternative fuel. The present paper elaborates the emission characteristics of an agricultural diesel engine utilising jatropha oil methyl ester with diesel blends (B10, B20 and B30). All the emission values were noted and plotted in the graph against loads varying at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%. The results depict that BD20 is the blend, which shows less tendency towards the emissions like CO, CO2, HC, while there is a slight increment in both NOx and smoke emission in comparison to the other test fuel blends, which gives a conclusion that B20 is a best alternative fuel capable of replacing current petroleum diesel fuels to reduce the engine emissions.

Patent Granted

Name of the inventors: Chauhan, H., Satapathy, S., Sahoo, A.K.

Title of the Patent: Multifunctional Headgear (Indian patent).


The present disclosure provides a multifunctional headgear 100. The headgear 100 includes a cooling unit 104 to provide cooling-effect, illumination sources 108 to illuminate a predetermined area, a rain cover 110 to protect from rain, a charging module 114 to enable charging of rechargeable devices, and a communication unit 106 to transmit meteorological attributes. The headgear 100 includes a protecting segment to protect eyes of the user from dust and dirt. The headgear 100 includes a power supply and management unit 116 to supply conditioned electric power to the headgear 100. The headgear includes solar panels 120 to enable generation of electric power through insolating solar radiations.

Ph.D. Degree Awarded

Student’s Name: Dr. Hullash Chauhan

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. S. Satapathy & Dr. A. K. Sahoo, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  Study on Mental Stress of Agri Farmers by Sustainable Engineering

Abstract of the Thesis:

At the individual farmer level, the occurrences of mental work load, health problems such as stress, anxiety, unhappy, feeling depression, physical problems and psychological distress have been identified as key risk factors while working in adverse weather conditions. Moreover, the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomforts and disorders cause serious health related problems due to psychological stress that affect the mental well-being of farmers reducing their work efficiency. The mental-stress has an important aspect affecting the individuals’ performances when they try for a varying level of complex-tasks. The exposing of human-beings to higher-levels of mental-stresses seems to be intolerable, and may affect in successfully completion of the tasks. The stresses in workplaces have been most harmful physical as well as emotional effects. With regard to farming occupation, it has been more dangerous with greater fatality-rates than any other occupation. Thus, an attempt was made in this research to identify the key risk-factors in farming work-places in addition to the levels of depressions, anxieties and work-stresses of farmers of Indian agriculture leading to mental ill-health among them. Further, this work aimed at developing a compact integrated device for measuring the mental-stress associated variables among the farmers. In order to design the device, different commercially available standard devices for measuring individual parameters/variables associated with the mental-stress of farmers in the form of their emotions were identified such as “Pulse Rate, High BP, Low BP, Temperature, and SO2”, respectively.

Student’s Name: Dr. Biswajit Mohapatra

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Sushant Tripathy & Dr. Deepak Singhal, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  An investigation on Some Aspects of lean in Manufacturing Sector

Abstract of the Thesis:

Lean, the warrior philosophy, has its reputation rooted in rescuing industries in crisis and transforming them into global players. Industries were driven into the gloom, with the decline in demand, supply, and workforce during the COVID pandemic. Further, post-pandemic, numerous industries have to resurrect themselves to bring back stability and competitiveness in the global market. In India, industries are starting to embrace lean, especially in MSMEs, as these contribute maximum to GDP but waste generated is also huge. To adopt lean, the barriers in manufacturing industries are to be examined along with its solutions and also tools needed to execute them. This research propelled by these ideas delves deep into lean barrier identification and prioritization, solutions proposal and order of importance pertaining to each barrier, and tools to execute the solutions. Industry-specific examples towards sustainability by a novel “ranking of techniques” are also unfolded. A real challenge is addressed to generate revenue in industries post-pandemic era. The implications of this research would bring clarity and awareness to academicians and industry professionals/managers the know-how of when to start implementing lean and where to start from. It would concertize the concepts, applications, and feasibility of lean in manufacturing industries. It will offer a sturdy base for manufacturers around the world to tune to lean and digital transformation of the production scenario.

Student’s Name: Dr. Rajan K.M.

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. A.K. Sahoo & Dr. B.C. Routara, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  Machinability Studies During Turning and Electro- Discharge Machining of Wrought and Additive Manufactured Titanium Alloys

Abstract of the Thesis:

Machining of titanium alloys is considered as difficult and also a major concern for manufacturing industries due to their low thermal conductivity, high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials and low elastic modulus. This leads failure of cutting tools and consequently affects the surface quality. Thus, selection of appropriate cutting tool materials and process parameters are essential for its effectiveness in industrial applications. Therefore, this research emphasizes on CNC turning of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V using coated carbide inserts under flood cooling environment to study the machinability characteristics such as tool wear, surface roughness, cutting temperature and chip morphology. Surface roughness lie between 0.215-0.830 µm and even below 1µm during machining. Additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V has higher mechanical properties as compared to wrought alloys that negatively influences the machinability characteristics and also lacks ductility. The main limitation is the poor surface quality; staircase effect and adhering of non-melted powder particles to the fabricated components. Again, fatigue life of components increases with decrease of surface roughness. Therefore, the need of machining of AMed titanium alloys in recent years is gaining importance. Therefore, the objective of the study is to develop AMed Ti-6Al-4V through direct metal laser sintering process and investigate its machinability characteristics. As most of the heat generated at the interfaces has been carried away through flood cooling, the rate of growth of tool wear, cutting temperature, surface roughness and degree of serration decreases and thus makes the performance of AMed Ti alloys are comparable with wrought Ti alloys. Optimal parameters for multi-responses are 0.1 mm depth of cut, 0.1 mm/rev feed rate and 70 m/min cutting speed and improved. Mathematical models are said to be significant and fitted well. Because of the improved machinability, AMed Ti alloys find itself suitable in industrial applications. The current study also focused on selecting the best cooling strategy and cutting parameters for turning Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy for sustainability. The cutting performances in dry, flood, and MQL settings are first compared, and MQL is found to perform better. The performance of stationary and rotary copper electrodes on Electro-discharge machining of wrought Ti-6Al-4V have been studied. Material removal rate (MRR), tool ware rate (TWR) and surface roughness (SR) were analyzed with three controllable input parameters such as pulse on time (Ton), Peak Current (Ip) and Gap Voltage (V). The design of experiment is chosen for the experimentation as the Box-Behnken response surface design method. The results are analyzed using grey relational analysis (GRA) coupled with firefly algorithm (FA).

Student’s Name: Dr. Rabinarayan Bag

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. A. Panda & Dr. A.K. Sahoo, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  Machinability investigation in hard turning of AISI 4340 steel under dry, MQL and nanofluid assisted MQL environments

Abstract of the Thesis:

In general, dry turning is the preferred choice for machining hardened steel because of high heat generation which softens the workpiece and minimizes the shear strength of the material. MQL-assisted machining provides cooling, lubricating, chip flushing, and environmentally friendly functions and is considered near dry sustainable machining. Three machining parameters namely cutting speed (v), feed rate (f), and depth of cut (d) with three levels have been adopted for the experimentation using the L27 Taguchi orthogonal array. The measured outputs such as average surface roughness (Ra), flank wear (VBc), cutting temperature (T), and chip morphology were considered for this experimental investigation. In this context, an attempt has been made in the recent investigation to study the machinability aspects at a higher cutting speed range i.e. 80-260 m/min for coated carbide cutting inserts in hardened steel machining which is rarely observed. A machinability analysis has been performed on the assessment of hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using PVD and CVD coated carbide tool under dry and dual jet MQL environment. Based on the experimental result, machining performance assessment of hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using CVD coated carbide tool under dual jet nanofluid MQL environment has been performed. At last, sustainability assessment during hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using CVD coated under dual jet nanofluid MQL environment has been performed. Abrasion, diffusion, and adhesion are the main wear mechanisms as observed. The occurrence of chip serration reasons for the formation of saw tooth type of chip because of cyclic crack at the free surface of the chip because of severe plastic deformation. For all machining environments, the hard turning of AISI 4340 steel and the cutting speed are found to be the most affecting term for tool flank wear and cutting temperature. For all cutting conditions the optimal parameters found to be d1 (0.2 mm)-f1 (0.05 mm/rev)-v1 (80 m/min). Further, Sustainability Pugh matrix evaluation revealed that NFMQL cutting environment improved the economical, technological, environmental and operator health sustainable parameters. Minimisation of energy consumption by 35.81 % and carbon footprints savings by 18.72 kg of CO2 observed under NFMQL at optimal cutting conditions and consequently saves manufacturing cost and CO2 emission respectively. This satisfies green and cleaner manufacturing of AISI 4340 steel. MQL hard machining and nanofluid assisted MQL hard machining for sustainability will be immensely beneficial for the research community for the replacement of traditional grinding in machining industries due to better environmental, economical benefits. This may be implemented on shop floors for environmentally cleaner sustainable machining.

Student’s Name: Dr. Saroj Kumar Muduli

Supervisor’s Name:

Dr. P.C. Mishra, Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering

Dr. R.K. Mishra, Scientist G, Group Director, CEMELAC, DRDO

Thesis Title: Performance Assessment of an Annular Combustor over its Flight Envelope

Abstract of the Thesis:

An annular combustor is tested in test rig simulating to H = 0 and various altitude operating conditions. Experimental data have been generated and utilized to validate numerical results in computational model. A 130 sector is modeled for the computational study. The primary air injection ports, dilution ports, cooling holes on liners and all major components of the combustor flow path are modeled and ICEMCFD is used as grid generation tool. ANSYS CFX has been used to solve the governing equations on finite volume method. All velocity and pressure equations were solved as a single system implicitly. Eddy-dissipation combustion model is selected for the whole study. Computational analysis has been carried out for operating conditions starting from ISA sea level static to ISA 12 km 0.6 Mach number. Data generated for this combustor by actual testing on the ground test bed for few cases are compared with the CFD results at different sections. Parameters such as overall pressure loss, combustor efficiency, temperature non-uniformities and exhaust emissions are analysed. The computational model estimated the pressure losses which are within 1 % of the experimental data. As combustor exit temperature non-uniformities (RPF & CPF) are very important with respect to aero engine life, these parameters are further assessed with varying altitude, atomisation characteristics such as fuel flow variation, fuel particle size , spray cone angle and fuel air ratio. Pressure swirl atomizers generally have small outlet diameters that are prone to rapid fuel distribution changes due to blockage. To consider these variations in fuel flow and their effect, the fuel flow is varied by ± 5 % from the nominal fuel flow. Similarly, cone angle shifts the high temperature zone upstream closer to combustor dome, hence the residence time for complete combustion and dilution is more thus causing a lower gas temperature at combustor exit. Exhaust emission constituents such as NO, CO and UHC which are important from environmental point of view have been assessed under different operating conditions. As no regulated emission limits are exercised so far in military applications, the data are generated and analysed over the operating envelope from combustor performance point of view. The predictive tool validated with experimental data from a full-scale full-annular combustor testing on aero-thermal test stand has been used for the assessment of all performance parameters and is the novelty of this work. These results will be an invaluable asset for designers as well as for operators for assessing the aero engine performance at various altitude and Mach number for full flight operation in the intended platform.

Student’s Name: Dr. Vikas Singh Panwar

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. A. Pandey & Dr. Md. E. Hasan, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  Design and Analysis of a Solar Powered Four Wheeled Wet and Dry Floor Cleaning Robot Controlled Autonomously using Soft Computing Algorithms

Abstract of the Thesis:

In current scenario, when everyday a new project with large and complex infrastructure is building up around the world, definitely there is a need and demand of maintaining them. And when we discuss about the maintenance of any building or structure, then the most tedious and boring task is cleaning. But nowadays, workloads on individuals and industries are increasing day-by-day, so the demands for service robots are also increasing at same intensity. Even in the present time when various contagious infections are shaking the world around us, the demand of autonomous floor cleaning robot has been increased drastically. Therefore, there is a need of multi-tasking Floor Cleaning Robot (FCR) which can efficiently perform wet and dry cleaning simultaneously without any human intervention. In the presented work, developed FCR employs a novel cleaning and operating system which helps in performing dry and wet cleaning operation continuously one after another. With reference to many available FCR in market and research field, a practical design is perceived using designing tools and a fully functional prototype is fabricated. To make it cost-effective and eco-friendly, solar panel is also attached on top of the model which will power the FCR. The kinematic and dynamic model of the developed FCR is analyzed and presented systematically. Navigational controls are developed by using different soft computing algorithms based on multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA), multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MPSO), particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm tuned feed forward neural network (FNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) architecture with the help of sensor’s information so that FCR can navigate autonomously by negotiating the obstacles coming in the way while carrying out the cleaning task in an unknown environment. The proposed techniques; performances are demonstrated using computer simulations using Virtual Robot Experimentation Platform (V-REP) software and implemented in real time using the developed experimental FCR. Furthermore, a comparative study of the navigational performance of proposed path planning approaches in terms of path length and travel time has been performed to determine the most efficient technique for navigation in an unknown environment.

Student’s Name: Dr. Dipabrata Banerjee

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Swayam Bikash Mishra, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  Mathematical and Experimental Approach for Geometrical Deformation of Fused Deposition Modeling Built Parts

Abstract of the Thesis:

To meet the challenging demands of the customer in the global market, manufacturing industries are adopting digital manufacturing technologies that can increase the part quality and minimise the part cycle time. This digitisation in manufacturing industries gives birth to Rapid Prototyping (RP) processes. Among all RP processes, the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is widely appreciated for its easy and advanced mechanism. FDM process has the ability to build precise 3D complex parts from CAD files by depositing material in a layer over layer manner with less human intervention and material waste. FDM fabricated parts are accurate, durable and exhibit adequate mechanical strength. Since FDM is a parametric dependant process, the selection of proper process parameters plays a significant role in part quality and strength. In our research work, the effect of process parameters such as part orientation, layer thickness, raster width, overlap distance, part length, part width and raster angel on warpage, surface roughness and circularity of FDM build parts are investigated mathematically and experimentally to check the dependency level. Experiments are carried out adopting the design of experiment (DOE) approach to extract maximum data from a minimum number of experimental run orders. Statistical significance of each process parameter is checked using analysis of variance (ANOVA) table. Quadratic regression equations are proposed establishing the correlation between process parameters and performance characteristics. Internal failure of the raster, formation of warpage and internal surface irregularities are checked using scanning electron machine (SEM) micrographs. A new swarm-based metaheuristic algorithm known as Ant-Lion optimiser (ALO) is adopted to get some optimum process parameter settings to improve the performance measures.

Student’s Name: Dr. Manish Kumar Agarwal

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Saranjit Singh, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title:  Analysis of Deformation Characteristics during Forging of SiCp Reinforced Aluminium Matrix Composites

Abstract of the Thesis:

The present thesis presents investigation of deformation characteristics during forging (closed-die) of SiCp AMC. The perform (cylindrical) fabricated via liquid metal stir casting manufacturing route were located centrally in closed-die set with respect to its axis and forged into axi-symmetric double-hub flange component. Initial experiments were conducted to examine the mechanical characterization of the AMC preforms under consideration, which also included investigations into interfacial frictional conditions and stress-strain behaviour of the AMC material. Under a controlled die-travel till the die corners were filled completely, during forging of the preforms, corresponding height reductions and die loads were recorded. The complete deformations were considered in two stages, i.e. free barreling and constrained distortion stages. The theoretical expressions (generalized using ‘Upper Bound’ technique) for strain rates, velocity field, various energy dissipations along with average die loads for all the deformation modes considered in the present study were formulated. The variation in die loads, die cavity fills and energy dissipations due to the effect of perform aspect ratio and die velocity were critically examined and experimentally compared the results. The present work also presents both theoretical (based on ‘Upper Bound’ approach) and experimental investigations, where theoretical analysis considers a modified interfacial frictional law and preforms free barreling. It is expected that the present work will be useful to assess various deformation characteristics during forging of metal matrix composites.  

Student’s Name: Dr. Rishitosh Ranjan

Supervisor’s Name: Dr. B. Surekha & Dr. P. Ghose, School of Mechanical Engineering

Thesis Title: Numerical and Experimental Investigations of A356 Casting using Cooling Slope Method

Abstract of the Thesis:

The present thesis involves numerical and experimental research on the fabrication of the aluminum cast alloy with improved microstructural and mechanical properties after using Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) processing method, which is the cooling slope method. The numerical simulation is conducted to study the effect of slope angle and length on the velocity and solid fraction while the molten metal is flowing over the cooling slope. It has been observed that the solid fraction decreases with the increase in the slope angle and decrease in the slope length. In order to obtain the casting with low hardness, it is desired to have a large grain size and high sphericity to the fabricated casting. This is possible only when the molten metal has a low solid fraction and high nucleation sites at the end of the cooling slope. The numerical simulation results show that the said condition of the molten metal could be achieved by utilizing the higher value of slope angle and the lower value of the slope length. The optimal range of the slope angle and slope length values obtained from the simulation study is used for the fabrication of A356 casting using the cooling slope method. The experiments are conducted as per the Central Composite Design (CCD) to establish the non-linear regression model that represents the fabrication of A356 casting using the CS method. During the fabrication process, in addition to the slope angle and slope length, the nozzle height is considered the input process parameters, whereas the microhardness, grain size, and sphericity of the sample are treated as the responses. The variation of said responses across the cross-section of the casting, the measurements are taken at three locations: the center, mean, and outer radius. The non-linear regression models are established for the A356 sample produced under two conditions, namely with and without isothermal treatment. The statistical validity of the regression models is tested with the Analysis of the Variance (ANOVA). Further, the estimated correctness of the established regression representations is verified using ten experimental test samples. The percentage deviation between the experimental and model-predicted values suggests that the developed mathematical models represent the physical process with reasonably good accuracy.

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