School of Civil Engineering (Oct – Dec 2022)


Journal Papers

1. Jurkovič, M., Gorzelanczyk, P., Kalina, T., Jaros, J., & Mohanty, M. (2022). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on road traffic accident forecasting in Poland and Slovakia. Open Engineering12(1), 578–589.


The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected the performance of the transport sector and its overall intensity. Reducing mobility has a major impact on road traffic accidents. The aim of this study is to forecast the number of road traffic accidents in Poland and Slovakia and to assess how the COVID-19 pandemic affected its trend. For this purpose, data for Poland and Slovakia in the selected relevant period were analyzed. Based on actual data from the past, a forecast was made for the future considering two scenarios – one where there is no effect of pandemic, and another with effect of pandemic. Forecasting the number of accidents in Poland was carried out using selected time series models related to linear trend (Holt and Winters method) and the exponential model. In the case of Slovakia, the model without trend and the exponential model were used to forecast the number of traffic accidents. The results of the research show that the pandemic caused a decrease in the number of traffic accidents in Poland by 31% and in Slovakia by 33%. This is a significant decline, but it is linearly dependent on restrictive measures that affect the mobility of the population. A similar trend can therefore be expected on a European scale.

2. Mamillapalli, R. S., Ranganaidu, V. and Bera, D.K. (2022). Systematic literature review on Lean framework for implementation in small real estate projects. Neuro Quantology, 20(13), 2940-2952.


Rapid developments are happening with vast construction activities across the world. Globally Lean Construction (LC) has gained attention for its benefits in reducing wastage, increasing the value to customers, effective use of resources and increasing the profit to the organizations. For more than two decades construction industry also adopted the principles of lean construction and the same yielded good results. But lean construction in adoption and implementation have not penetrated small and medium construction companies. Only by few large companies for big projects have adopted and availed the benefits of lean construction. This raises the question of whether lean principles work well only for large projects and big construction companies? For small construction companies and projects implementing lean, there is a need for a framework. This study reviews the literature in a systematic research method of approach about the framework for implementation of lean construction in real estate projects. The study identifies the need for a framework for the implementation of lean construction for small projects and construction companies as the gap in the literature. Very less work has been carried out by the researchers in the lean adoption and implementation for cast in situ construction projects which is to be addressed by the researcher for future scope of research. The study concludes that there is no proper literature available that guides organizations to handhold, train and implement lean techniques. This research study will help the researchers to explore in implementation and development of project-based training modules of lean construction tools and techniques for better adoption in small real estate construction projects.

3. Gorzelanczyk, P., Jurkovič, M., Kalina, T., & Mohanty, M. (2022). Forecasting the road accident rate and the impact of the covid 19 on its frequency in the polish provinces. Komunikácie24(4), A216–A231.


The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the development of road transport, not only in Poland, but also worldwide. Limited mobility, especially at the beginning of the pandemic, had a large impact on the number of road accidents. The aim of the present study is to predict the number of road accidents in Poland and to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on variability of the number of road accidents. To attain the objective, annual data on the road accidents for every province in Poland were collected and analysed. Based on historical crash data, obtained from the police, the number of road accidents was forecasted for both pandemic and non-pandemic scenarios. Selected time series models and exponential models were used to forecast the number of accidents.

4. Mohanty, T., Kumar, A., Acharya, P.K., Patro, S.K. and Saha, P. (2022). Performancs of structural geopolymer concrete utilizing ferrochrome ash and fly ash as source material. Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series A, 103, 1183-1194.


An investigation on performances of geopolymer concrete utilizing fly ash (FA) and ferrochrome ash (F.Ash) as source material is presented in this article. The article not only reports on various properties of the geopolymer concrete but also on the structural behavior of reinforced geopolymer concrete beams under two-point loading. Geopolymer concrete mixtures are prepared by varying the dosage of FA and F.Ash. Flexural properties like moment resistance, deflection and crack pattern of geopolymer reinforced concrete beams containing FA and F.Ash were studied and compared to conventional reinforced concrete beams, in addition to the studies on the strength and durability of geopolymer concrete. Best property values are observed in geopolymer concrete containing FA and F.Ash in proportion 50:50. The flexural strength of reinforced geopolymer concrete beams was found superior to conventional concrete beams. The conventional concrete beam was observed to deflect more during failure than geopolymer beams. It is also observed that a reinforced geopolymer concrete beam made from 50%FA + 50% F.Ash source material takes more load before initiation of crack in comparison to conventional concrete beam.

5. Acharya, P. K., & Patro, S. K. (2022). Evaluation of Functional, Microstructural, Environmental Impact, and Economic Performance of Concrete Utilizing Ferrochrome Ash and Slag. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy8(4), 1573–1589.


This paper reports on the functional, economic, and environmental performance of sustainable concrete prepared from the waste materials like ferrochrome ash (FCA) and air-cooled ferrochrome slag (ACFS). FCA and ACFS are metallurgical waste materials from the ferrochrome industry, which contain residual chromium and face disposal problems. The leaching of chromium from FCA is reported to be 26 times more than the regulatory limit, as such banned for landfilling. The sustainable management of these metal residues in concrete making through the combined use of FCA (up to 40%) and ACFS (100%) for part replacement of the cement and total replacement of virgin coarse aggregate was examined. The technical performance of such concrete when examined in terms of compressive strength, modulus of rupture, and sulfate resistance has better performances up to 11% than conventional concrete. Environmental performances when examined through global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), abiotic depletion potential (ADP), photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP), eutrophication potential (EP), and acidification potential (AP) have advantages up to 47% when compared to normal concrete. The leaching of hexavalent chromium from such concrete is far below the regulatory limit. The economic performance of such concrete is found 22% cheaper than normal concrete. The microstructure of ferrowaste concrete is found denser than control concrete.

6. Mishra, K. R., Mohanty, M., & Dey, P. P. (2022). Modelling traffic safety at uncontrolled median openings: A case study in India. Iatss Research46(4), 441-449.


Assessment of traffic safety is an essential study in transportation engineering. In a developing country like India, around 150,000 people die in road crashes every year. Furthermore, at uncontrolled median openings, the severity of road crashes is higher due to the presence of impatient U-turning road userswho don’t obey the rule of priority. Traditionally, road crash data have been used since long to analyze traffic safety. However, in developing countries, the main drawback of this conventional method is limited availability of accident data as very few accidents get reported. Moreover, the accuracy of these reported data is questionable. Therefore, now-a-days, various surrogate traffic safety measures like Post Encroachment Time (PET), and Time to Collision (TTC) are being used to examine the safety of road users. Among them, PET is regarded as the most consistent, and most widely used safety indicator. Therefore, in the present study, PET across different traffic volume levels has been determined. Videography data has been collected from selected median openings located on six-lane divided urban roads. PET values for different traffic volumes, and different category of vehicles have been analysed in detail. Further, the distribution of PET values across the fullwidth of road has also been studied. Concept of critical speed is introduced which is compared with conflicting speed to assess unsafe conflicts and determine a critical PET. Finally, regression models have also been proposed with good levels of accuracy to determine the PET values for various category of vehicles travelling at different conflicting speeds.

7. Mohanty, M., Panda, R., Gandupalli, S. R., Arya, R. R., & Lenka, S. K. (2022). Factors propelling fatalities during road crashes: A detailed investigation and modelling of historical crash data with field studies. Heliyon8(11), e11531.


One of the major concerns in developing countries like India is to maintain traffic safety under mixed and

heterogenous scenario. Although zero accidents is the need of the hour, the first step to attain it is nsuring zero deaths and no serious long-term disabling injuries in road crashes. To reduce the road crash fatalities, explicit and detailed studies have been conducted by utilising historical road crash data of two emerging smart cities of India – Bhubaneswar and Visakhapatnam. Traffic flow data and characteristics of road infrastructure has also been collected by performing field studies at accident prone locations. Various factors including vehicular characteristics, road user characteristics, and road infrastructure have been analyzed using various non-parametric tests to identify the contributing factors resulting in fatalities. It is observed that out of 14 variables used for study, 8 factors were significantly related to fatal crashes. These included categories of victim and accused, 85th percentile speed, presence of road markings, availability of sight distance, etc. The significant factors were subjected to binary logistic regression to determine the odd’s ratio of significant factors. The logistic regression predicted 79% of deaths correctly. Crash fatality prediction models are developed using both Classification and Regression Tree (CART) classification tree with 83% accuracy. Although CART classification led to higher accuracy, binary logistic regression is more robust as it considered more significant factors as compared to CART. Subsequently, a severity index has been proposed based on proportions of actual fatal crashes and usage of K-means clustering technique. The proposed indices shall be really helpful in traffic safety management, specifically in reduction of fatalities during road crashes.

8. Samal, S.R., Mohanty, M. and Selvaraj, M.S. (2022). Assessment of traffic congestion under Indian environment – A case study. Communications, 24(4), D174 – D182.


Traffic congestion is a major problem around the globe. The prime reason for congestion is unavailability of traffic infrastructure to meet the traffic demand. Road users are forced to face undesirable delay, which influences the economy, environment and health. The present study examines the congestion in the urban roads of Bhubaneswar, a smart city in India. Travel time for various categories of vehicles was estimated and congestion indices in terms of buffer index were evaluated. Multiple linear regression modeling has been used to evaluate the congestion parameters. The p-value for all the independent variables in the developed model is < 0.05. Four elements, namely Strict traffic law implementation, Adequate parking facilities, Decentralization and Controlling the road side activities are required to improve the serviceability and mobility of urban road networks.

9. Alali, M., Paikaray, B. and Mohapatra, B.G. (2022). Behavioral investigation of the footings on geosynthetics-reinforced ferrochrome slag. International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development, 13(4), 436-453.


The rapid growth in all sectors puts great pressure on natural resources, making them vulnerable to depletion, not to mention the huge volume of waste, which is an inevitable result of this growth, especially industrial ones. These challenges drove researchers to seek sustainable alternatives with the least dependence on natural resources and invest in industrial wastes simultaneously. In the last decade, ferrochrome slag was able to draw the attention of researchers to use it in the construction sector, but it did not have an opportunity to prove its worth as a foundation material despite its outstanding physical and mechanical properties. In the current research, and after verifying the environmental acceptance of ferrochrome slag through the leaching test to determine the toxicity of waste seeping into the ground, an experimental investigation was carried out through a series of laboratory model footing tests using a bed of ferrochrome slag with a medium relative density of 65%, the bearing capacity of each square and rectangular foundation that laying on the slag bed was evaluated in unreinforced and reinforced conditions with two different types of geosynthetic materials, geogrid and geotextile (non-woven), the variable parameters included the type of footing, the sort of reinforcement and the number of reinforcement layers. The findings showed a good response to the inclusion of the geosynthetic layers, adding a layer of geogrid, two and three layers increased the bearing capacity of square footing by 7%, 32%, and 52%, respectively. The bearing capacity ratio (BCR) with adding three layers of geotextile for rectangular footing (1.95) was found to be better than that of square footing (1.64), however, for three layers of the geogrid, the BCR value of square footing (1.52) was slightly more than that of rectangular footing (1.48). The environmental acceptance and the good response to the geosynthetics open up the chance for the ferrochrome slag to stand out as a sustainable alternative to granular footing materials, with geotextiles outperforming their geogrid counterparts in improving the bearing capacity of both types of foundations studied.

Book Chapters

1. Parida, S.K., Padhi, J., Chakraborty, P. and Das, B. (2022). Drought characterization during monsoon months based on Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in Nuapada District, Odisha, India. In: Yadav, S., Negm, A.M., Yadava, R.N. (eds) Water Quality, Assessment and Management in India. Earth and Environmental Sciences Library. Springer, Cham.


Frequent droughts experienced in World’s different parts due to the effect of climate change. It is a challenging situation considering wide variation of conditions leadings to drought. Therefore, better scientific analysis is necessary to forecast, monitor and manage the drought. In this study, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is computed because of its popularity across the World as an important indicator across space and time. Estimation of SPI 3 Aug and Sep drought value for Bodan, Khariar, Komna, Nuapada and Sinapali blocks of Nuapada District were found out for the interpretation of drought in the months of monsoon. This is achieved by using the rainfall data month wise for different blocks from 1983–2017. It was observed that, Bodan and Sinapali blocks experienced maximum number of total (moderate+severe+extreme) drought events based as per SPI 3 Aug as well as SPI 3 Sep. Highest severe drought events occurred in Nuapada and Sinapali blocks whereas maximum extreme drought events (2) detected by Khariar block as per SPI 3 Aug. Similarly, maximum events of severe (3) and extreme droughts (2) occurred in Bodna and Komna blocks respectively as per SPI 3 Sep. Also in this study, two threshold precipitation values were computed in monsoon months for the identification of agricultural drought. Agricultural drought threshold limit varied from 462.1 to 595.5 mm and 464.6 to 622.5 mm as per SPI 3 Aug and SPI 3 Sep values respectively. Maximum drought duration of 13, 18, 23, 21 and 17 months experienced by Bodan, Khariar, Komna, Nuapada and Sinapali blocks respectively. This analysis can guide different strategies on the management of water and also for planning of the crops in various blocks of Nuapada District.

Grant or Project Awarded:

(Core Research Grant under SERB Sponsored Research Scheme)

Title of the Sanctioned Project: Design, Optimization, and Demonstration of Chemical Column and Pressure Injection Treatment to Enhance the Shear Strength Characteristics Along with Phytoremediation of the Abandoned Ash Pond

Principal Investigator’s Name: Prof. Aparupa Pani, Assistant Professor II, School of Civil Engineering, KIIT University

Co-Principal Investigator’s Name: Prof. Shivanand Shirkole, Assistant Professor, Food Engineering and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, ICT-IOC, Bhubaneswar and Prof. Susmita Mishra, Professor, Chemical Engineering, NIT Rourkela

Name of Funding Agency: Science and Engineering Research Board, Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India

Sanctioned Amount of Project: Rs. 46.7 Lakhs for 3 years

Abstract of the Project:

About 70-75% of the total power generated in India is produced by coal-based thermal power plants.India is one of the leading producers of coal fly ash and each year about 40-50% of fly ash remainsunutilized. The present generation of fly ash is about 219 million metric tons per annum which areprojected to exceed around 900 million tons by 2031-32. The disposal of this un-utilized fly ash createsa bigger challenge for thermal power plants, as it covers around 265 km2 areas as ash disposal sitesand predicted that by the end of the year 2020, the total land occupied under ash disposal sites wouldbe around 820 km2 at an estimated rate of 0.6 ha per MW. Generally, wet disposal of ash is the mostcommon practice adopted by coal-fired power stations, and the sedimented ash deposits formed due tothe continuous deposition process possess very low density, high compressibility, and poor bearingcapacity that are very much susceptible to liquefaction during an earthquake. Also, the leachate,emanating from the ash ponds or lagoons, carries toxic elements and heavy metals leading tocontamination of surface water as well as groundwater bodies. However, excavating vast quantities ofcoal ash from the ash ponds and mixing them mechanically with chemical or mineral admixtures to useit in the field of construction are burdensome and much more expensive. In this context, a suitablelaboratory-scale design and experimentation have already been done. Design and field-scaleexperimentation of various in-situ stabilization techniques are needed to improve the engineeringperformances (strength and stability) along with controlling the migration of harmful leached elementsfrom the abandoned ash pond sites. It is envisaged to use in-situ stabilization techniques using chemicalcolumns of different specifications along with a combination of pressure injection technique andphytoremediation to large scale laboratory models as well as to real ash ponds and study its efficacy inimproving the geotechnical characteristics of the entire ash deposits. However, the amalgamation ofPhyto-assisted pressure injection is assumed to hold a higher potential to remove the heavy metalhyperaccumulation and hinder the leaching of contaminants into groundwater. The study alsoincorporates the characterization of ash leachate and its improvement with the in-situ stabilizationmethods applied. This technique is presumed as an appropriate sustainable technique to resolve mostof the geotechnical problems associated with the huge ash pond sites and make the disposal sitesuitable for light construction purposes. This whole research proposal is entirely based on UnitedNations Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDG) number 6, 9, 11, and 15 where the main focus isgiven on waste to wealth conversion. It will not only manifest sustainability but also highlights theconcept of ‘Swachh Bharat Abhiyan’ (Clean India Mission).


InvestigatorsTitle of the Sanctioned ProjectName of Funding AgencyYear
Dr. Bitanjaya Das, Dr. Jyotiprakash Padhi and Dr. Paromita ChakrabortyHydrogeological monitoring and mapping in Dhinkia panchayat of Utkal Steel Ltd., ParadeepCETUS Consulting Solution Services Pvt Ltd2022
Dr. Benu Gopal Mohapatra and Dr. Satyajeet NandaWater Management during construction of 4B+36 Residential project at Satyanagar, BhubaneswarDasarathiNaik and Engineers Pvt. Bhubaneswar2022
Dr. Benu Gopal Mohapatra and Dr. Satyajeet NandaClassification of rock and utilizationRites Ltd, New Delhi  2022
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