School of Civil Engineering (Jan – Mar 2023)
- Nayak, J. K., Shankar, U., & Samal, K. (2023). Fabrication and development of SPEEK/PVdF-HFP/SiO2 proton exchange membrane for microbial fuel cell application. Chemical Engineering Journal Advances, 14, 100459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceja.2023.100459
Abstract: This study presents the potential of sulfonated poly (ether-ether-ketone)/ poly (vinylidene fluorideco-hexafluoro propylene)/SiO2 (SPEEK/PVdF-HFP/SiO2) composite proton exchange membrane for the use of microbial fuel cell. Silica particles (SiO2) were admixed with SPEEK/PVdF-HFP with various ratios. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) were examined for characterizing the PEM membrane. Proton conductivity, oxygen diffusivity, ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake and performance for polymer composites using MFCs were analysed. The highest proton conductivity value of 8 × 10 2 S cm 1 was obtained for the SiO2–7.5 wt.% incorporated polymer membrane of SPEEK (80 wt.%) / PVdF-HFP (20 wt.%). The maximum voltage generation and power density of 998.5 ± 2 mV and 1.5 mW/m2 were noticed, respectively. This study suggests that the incorporation of SiO2 in polymer composite membrane has potential for an alternative PEM.
- Pani, A.K. and Panda, B.C. (2023). Elastic modulus of equivalent block layer in concrete block pavement using finite element analysis. Indian Concrete Journal, 97(1), 41-49.
Abstract: Concrete block pavement (CBP) consists of concrete blocks of brick-sized units connected together with jointing sand and placed on a layer of bedding sand over a sub-base. The paving blocks along with the bedding and jointing sand form a composite layer called as equivalent block layer (EBL), serves the function of both wearing and base course. This paper will present the methodology to work out the elastic modulus of EBL through back calculation process using experimental deflections and finite element analysis. Finally, the mean elastic modulus of 478 MPa has been obtained for the EBL of CBP.
- Mohanty, I., Saha, P., Patra, S.R. and Jha, S.K. (2023). Waste to valuable resource: application of copper slag and steel slag in concrete with reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 8: 122, pp. 12.
Abstract: Waste recycling and reuse is an important component of sustainability. Extensive research is being conducted to address this issue by incorporating industrial by-product such as steel slag, copper slag, fly ash, ferro-chrome slag, and so on into the construction industry. Steel slag, which is mostly calcium carbonate, is created as a by-product of the steel oxidation process, whereas copper slag is created as a by-product of the metal smelting process and copper refining, with annual production of 12 and 2 million tonnes, respectively. The percentage of aggregates used in concrete is more than 70%, and the augmentation of construction has compelled suppliers and scholars to use alternate aggregate materials that could protect natural resources and the environment. Various studies on the possible use of copper and steel slag in concrete have been conducted in the literature, but studies using a combination of copper and steel slag including ecological and environmental aspects are few. The objective of this investigation is to produce concrete by replacing fine aggregate and coarse aggregate with copper slag and steel slag. After 7, 28 and 56 curing days, the mechanical properties of the various proportions were found and an analogy was drawn with conventional concrete. The experimental findings reveal that the concrete blend with 75% and 25% replacement of fine and coarse aggregate with copper and steel slag, respectively, shows better results in comparison with other mixes. This mix provides 48% lesser cost than control concrete and has 34.9% less embodied carbon dioxide emission, and hence it is recommended as most sustainable and cost-effective concrete. Utilization of copper slag and steel slag in making this sustainable concrete blend will pave path to a safe environment and protection of natural resources.
- Mohanty, M., Sarkar, B., Gorzelanczyk, P., Panda, R., Gandupalli, S.R. and Ankunda, A. (2023). Developing pedestrian fatality prediction models using historical crash data: application of binary logistic regression and boosted tree mechanism. Communications, 25(2), D45-D53.
Abstract: Pedestrian fatality rate plays a key role in examining effectiveness of the road safety. The present study attempts to examine the effect of various categories of accused vehicles and the average 85th percentile speed at accident location on the pedestrian crash fatality. The study also attempts to develop pedestrian crash severity models using the binary logistic regression and boosted trees technique. Historical crash data, along with the video recording technique at accident sites, have been utilized for the present study. From regression equations, it is observed that when the heavy vehicle (HV) hits a pedestrian as compared to two-wheeler (2W), the average chance of death increases 2.44 times. According to the Boosted tree model, the contribution of speed is 60 %, whereas the contribution of category of accused vehicle is 40 % for pedestrian fatality prediction. The study should help in planning better strategies like all red time at intersections or pedestrian foot over bridge at critical locations.
- Mohanty, M., Biswal, D.R. and Mohaptra, S.S. (2023). A systematic review exploring the utilization of coal mining and processing wastes as secondary aggregate in sub-base and base layers of pavement. Construction and Building materials, 368 (130408), pp. 13.
Abstract: With the rising trend in electricity usage, the amount of waste associated with the mining and processing of coal is also rising rapidly. Over the past few decades, improper utilization of these wastes has led to resource depletion, waste disposal, and environmental pollution issues. The key focus of the present study is to review the literature related to the utilization of untreated and treated coal mining and processing wastes in the construction of sustainable roads. Following a suitable Preferred Reporting Items (PRISMA) framework for systematic review, 67 records are considered for the qualitative analysis. The efficiency of these coal mining and processing wastes as secondary aggregate in the sub-base and/or base layer of pavement is reviewed based on their mechanical (California bearing ratio, Unconfined compressive strength, Flexural strength, and Indirect tensile strength) and durability (Freeze-thaw resistance and Resistance to shrinkage) properties. The effectiveness of chemical stabilization on strength gain criteria is also discussed on the basis of microstructural (Scanning electron microscopy and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis. The findings of the present review suggest that utilization of coal wastes in the construction of bound sub-base and/or base not only addresses the waste disposal challenges but also assists the problems associated with raw material depletion. Additionally, based on the outcomes of past studies, this paper identifies the research gaps and presents future research directions that could open new avenues for the sustainable development of pavement.
- Gorzelanczyk, P., Kalina, T., Jurkovic, M. and Mohanty, M. (2023). Forecasting the number of road accidents in Poland by day of the week and the impact of pendemics and pandemic induced changes. Cogent Engineering, 10:1, 2185956.
Abstract: The COVID19 pandemic has significantly affected the performance of the transport sector and its overall intensity. Reduced mobility has a large impact on the number of road accidents. The aim of this study is to forecast the number of road accidents in Poland and to assess the impact of the COVID19 pandemic on the variation in road crashes. For this purpose, day-wise historical crash data from 2011 onwards have been collected and analysed. Based on real historical field data, the future has been forecasted for both pandemic and nonpandemic variants. Forecasting of the number of accidents has been carried out using selected time series models and exponential models. Based on obtained data, it can be stated that pandemic resulted in a decrease in number of road accidents in Poland with ranges of reduction varying from 11% to 30% based on different days of week. Most visible decrease is observed on 3 days viz. Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday. Further, the projections show that in view of the current situation one may expect further decrease in the number of road accidents in Poland.
- Acharya, P.K. and Patro, S.K. (2023). Evaluation of environmental disturbance indicator using functional performance and life cycle assessment of ferrochrome waste concrete. Journal of Building Engineering, 65 (105788), pp. 15.
Abstract: This paper reports on environmental disturbance indicators (EDI) using functional performance-based life cycle assessment (LCA) on concrete prepared using waste materials from the ferrochrome industry. The study is made on six concrete mixes with and without waste materials like ferrochrome ash (FCA) and air-cooled ferrochrome slag (ACFS). Lime-activated FCA is used for partial replacement of cement up to 47% and ACFS for total replacement of natural coarse aggregate. The study examines the sustainability of concrete mixes made with ferrochrome waste materials by LCA through the weighting schemes applied to five environmental impacts such as aquatic acidification (AA), carcinogens (CAR), global warming (GW), terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE) and respiratory inorganic (RI). The results of LCA based on the performance in terms of strength and durability indicated benefits in EDI of 46%. The robustness and independence of EDI results were checked through six different weighting schemes and the difference between these varied from 2.87 to 2.40%. The present work also includes the EDI-based study on the best-case and worst-case scenarios that describe the transportation of waste materials from the nearest and farthest plant. The results of such a study indicated that there is a difference of 4–11% between best-case and worst-case transportation scenarios. The contribution of various ingredients of concrete to the environment was checked through contribution analysis using OpenLCA software, where the results showed that cement is the top contributor. Lime and superplasticizer are the 2nd and 3rd contributors. Among the six concrete mixes made with and without ferrochrome waste materials, the normal concrete mix was found most unsustainable. There exists a good relationship between functional unit-based EDI values and scenario-based impact values. Results revealed that the concrete produced using ferrochrome waste materials have low EDI compared to conventional concrete.
- Singh, P., Pani, A., Mujumdar, A.S. and Shirkole, S.S. (2023). New strategies on the application of artificial intelligence in the field of phytoremediation. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 25(4), 505-523.
Abstract: Artificial Intelligence (AI) is expected to play a crucial role in the field of phytoremediation and its effective management in monitoring the growth of the plant in different contaminated soils and their phenotype characteristic such as the biomass of plants. This review focuses on recent applications of various AI techniques and remote sensing approaches in the field of phytoremediation to monitor plant growth with relevant morphological parameters using novel sensors, cameras, and associated modern technologies. Novel sensing and various measurement techniques are highlighted. Input parameters are used to develop futuristic models utilizing AI and statistical approaches. Additionally, a brief discussion has been presented on the use of AI techniques to detect metal hyperaccumulation in all parts of the plant, carbon capture, and sequestration along with its effect on food production to ensure food safety and security. This article highlights the application, limitation, and future perspectives of phytoremediation in monitoring the mobility, bioavailability, seasonal variation, effect of temperature on plant growth, and plant response to the heavy metals in soil by using the AI technique. Suggestions are made for future research in this area to analyze which would help to enhance plant growth and improve food security in long run.
- Dey, A., Pani, A.K. and Acharya, P.K. (2023). Properties of mortar using supplementary cementious materials. AIP Conference Proceedings 2740, 060015, pp. 12.
- Sahoo, B., Bera, D.K., Das, D. and Rath, P. (2023). Effect of fly ash/activator ratio on strength development of fly ash based geopolymer paste. AIP Conference Proceedings 2740, 040002, pp. 8.
- Patel, J., Bera, D.K., Rath, A.K. and Acharya, P.K. (2023). Suitability of pervious geo-polymer concrete containing fly ash as road shoulder: A pilot study. AIP Conference Proceedings 2740, 040003, pp. 12.
- Rautaray, S.K., Bera, D.K. and Rath, A.K. (2023). Sustainablity of self-cured cementless self-compacting concrete using industrial waste. AIP Conference Proceedings 2740, 040005, pp. 13.
- Sarkar, S., Mohanty, S., Moulick, S. and (2023). Adsorption/Photodegradation of reactive blue (C.I. No. 21) from aqueous media by hydrothermally synthesized titanate nanotube (TNT). AIP Conference Proceedings 2740, 060007, pp. 5.
- Dr. Prasanna Kumar Acharya, Patent Name: Synthesis of cement less geopolymer mix for a paver block system under non-traffic conditions (Indian patent).
Abstract of an Invention:
The present invention would reduce cement consumption thereby carbon emission and global warming. Secondly, it would reduce energy consumption associated with cement production. Thirdly, it would convert waste to wealth leading to circular economy due to utilization of waste materials like fly ash, sugarcane bagasse ash and blast furnace slag. Fourthly it would conserve the natural resources.
There exists a need for industrial waste disposal at every place. Work has been done to incorporate these waste materials in normal cement but cement inherently is largely responsible for global warming. The suitable solution will be total cement replacement. Geopolymer is such a direction where these two problems can be solved together but the geopolymer works developed needs heat curing to gain strength that require huge energy consumption. Hence the challenge is to create a blend of geopolymer mix where the strength can be achieved in ambient condition or room temperature.
The mix developed through the research is a combination of 3 largely available wastes e.g. sugarcane bagasse ash, fly ash, blast furnace slag. The mixture needs to be activated by a solution which will give the desired strength at room temperature without employing heat curing method.
- Ms Ipsita Mohanty, Patent Name: Novel Sustainable Concrete using Industrial by-products as optimum replacement of cement andaggregates -Towards a sustainable path.(Indian patent).
Abstract of an Invention:
Odisha is a mineral rich state with a large demand for construction materials due to an increase in urban population. Transforming industrial by-products (IBP) or derivatives into construction materials is a viable solution for sustainable development. Utilization of IBP improves certain properties of concrete like gamma ray shielding, durability, permeability etc which may not be achieved by use of natural raw materials. Optimal application of steel slag, copper slag as concrete aggregate and Dolochar as partial substitute of cement, is unique and is the primary focus of this study. The objective of the study is to achieve strength and durability property, similar to the conventional concrete.
- MD. Hibzur Ali, Shubhra Sharma, Harshit Kishlay, Saswat Mahapatra, Dr. Sanjib Moulick, Dr. Kundan Samal, Patent Name: A portable organic waste management apparatus and methof of composting (Indian patent).
Abstract of an Invention:
A portable organic waste management apparatus and method of composting, wherein the apparatus has three different chambers The first chamber collects the organic waste and is provided with mesh plates and controllable air vents to allow proper aeration and partial decomposition of the waste at mesophilic stage. The second chamber is provided with ahand driven shaft that helps in churning and mixing the partially decomposed waste, further one or more slanting plates for allowing the flow of water that would eventually help in better decomposition of waste and allowing the waste to be semi-decomposed in a thermophilic stage. The third chamber is sufficiently aerated to allow the semi-decomposed organic waste to get matured compost in the third chamber in a maturation stage. The bottom of the third chamber is provided with a mesh plate for collection of leachate via an outlet. For the ease in mobility of the apparatus one or more wheels are attached to the bottom surface of the apparatus.
- Mr. Mohibullah, Dr. P.K Acharya, Patent Name:Synthesis of a geopolymer system using industrial waste red mud for making paver block (Indian patent).
Abstract of an Invention:
Red mud (RM) is the by-product of bauxite ores used to extract alumina. Globally, around 58 million tonnes of alumina is produced annually, of which India accounts for 2.7 million tonnes. Its disposal is a big concern as it causes damage to soil, farming and plant growth. The environmental concerns linked with RM disposal options are related to its high pH (10.5–12.5) value, the uncertainty of storage, seepage of alkali into groundwater and vast areas of land consumed. High fineness of RM particles leads to alkaline dust forming that contaminates air (dry disposal), thus jeopardizing the surrounding vegetation. Heavy metals in RM disposed of in soil leave them unfit for consumption and farming. Current disposal exercises involve dry stacking, storage in huge ponds, waste lakes or landfills. At present, there is almost no suitable option for potential reuse of RM and management thereof due to its alkalinity. Synthesis of an alkali-activated binder composite using alkali-rich red mud waste through geo polymerization and its use in the construction industry may be a valuable solution associated with present options of red mud disposal.
- Ms. Manal Alali, Dr. Bandita Paikaray, Dr. Benu Gopal Mohapatra, Patent Name: An alternative foundation material from ferrochrome slag (Indian patent).
Abstract of an Invention:
The environment suffers from great pressure as a result of the waste generated by the industrial sector, which accumulates at huge rates annually, in addition to the increasing demand for natural resources such as sand and gravel in many sectors, the most important of which are the construction and road sectors, which makes them decreasing day by day. The solution presented through this invention aims to solve the two problems mentioned in paragraph 2, where ferrochrome slag is used as foundation material. Ferrochrome slag is a by-product accompanying the production of iron and chromium alloys and is considered industrial waste. This slag is produced in huge quantities estimated at 1.1 kilograms per kilogram of ferrochrome produced in factories. The amount of this slag globally, according to documented studies, amounted to about 12 million tons in 2017, and the quantity is increasing annually. This slag is used as material under the foundations instead of the usual natural sources, thus relieving pressure on these sources and ensuring useful reuse in large quantities for this waste, which is characterized by good mechanical and physical properties with the possibility of improving its bearing capacity through ground reinforcement materials.